D Programming Language 1.0

Last update Sun Dec 30 20:34:43 2012

The D Style

The D Style is a set of style conventions for writing D programs. The D Style is not enforced by the compiler, it is purely cosmetic and a matter of choice. Adhering to the D Style, however, will make it easier for others to work with your code and easier for you to work with others' code. The D Style can form the starting point for a project style guide customized for your project team.

Submissions to Phobos and other official D source code will follow these guidelines.

White Space


Naming Conventions

Names formed by joining multiple words should have each word other than the first capitalized. Names shall not begin with an underscore ‘_’ unless they are private member variables.
int myFunc();
Module and package names are all lower case, and only contain the characters [a..z][0..9][_]. This avoids problems dealing with case insensitive file systems.
C Modules
Modules that are interfaces to C functions go into the "c" package, for example:
import std.c.stdio;
Module names should be all lower case.
Class, Struct, Union, Enum, Template names
are capitalized.
class Foo;
class FooAndBar;
An exception is that eponymous templates that return a value instead of a type should not be capitalized, as they are conceptually more similar to functions. ------------------------- template GetSomeType(T) {} template isSomeType(T) {} -------------------------
Function names
Function names are not capitalized.
int done();
int doneProcessing();
Const names
Are in all caps.
Enum member names
Are in lowerCamelCase.

Meaningless Type Aliases

Things like:

alias void VOID;
alias int INT;
alias int* pint;

should be avoided.

Declaration Style

Since the declarations are left-associative, left justify them:

int[] x, y;	// makes it clear that x and y are the same type
int** p, q;	// makes it clear that p and q are the same type

to emphasize their relationship. Do not use the C style:

int []x, y;	// confusing since y is also an int[]
int **p, q;	// confusing since q is also an int**

Operator Overloading

Operator overloading is a powerful tool to extend the basic types supported by the language. But being powerful, it has great potential for creating obfuscated code. In particular, the existing D operators have conventional meanings, such as ‘+’ means ‘add’ and ‘<<’ means ‘shift left’. Overloading operator ‘+’ with a meaning different from ‘add’ is arbitrarily confusing and should be avoided.

Hungarian Notation

Using hungarian notation to denote the type of a variable is a bad idea. However, using notation to denote the purpose of a variable (that cannot be expressed by its type) is often a good practice.


All public declarations will be documented in Ddoc format.

Unit Tests

As much as practical, all functions will be exercised by unit tests using unittest blocks immediately following the function to be tested. Every path of code should be executed at least once, verified by the code coverage analyzer.

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