digitalmars.com                      
Last update Sat Jun 18 16:54:31 2011

bios.h


biosdisk

Header
bios.h
Prototype
int biosdisk(int cmd, int drive, int head, int track, int sector, int nsects, void *buffer);
Description
biosdisk accesses interrupt 0x13 for BIOS disk operations on the drive specified by the drive argument. For floppy drives, 0 identifies the first drive, 1 is for the second drive, and so forth. This function is not available under DOSX.

cmd specifies the disk operation to perform. head, track, sector, nsects, and buffer provide further information for the command specified by cmd.

The following command values are available:

cmd Meaning
0 Resets disk system by a hard reset; all other parameters are ignored.
1 Returns the status of the last disk operation; all other parameters are ignored.
2 Reads the specified disk sectors. The head, track, and sector arguments specify the starting sector. The nsects argument specifies the number of sectors to read. The read data is stored in buffer.
3 Writes disk sectors from memory. The head, track, and sector arguments specify the starting sector. The nsects argument specifies the number of sectors to write. The data is read from buffer.
4 Verifies sectors. The head, track, and sector arguments specify the starting sector. The nsects argument specifies the number of sectors to verify.
5 Formats a track. The head and track arguments specify the track to format. Buffer stores the sector headers.
6 Formats a track and sets bad sector flags.
7 Formats the drive beginning at a specific track.
8 Gets the current drive parameters and stores them in buffer.
9 Initializes drive-pair characteristics.
10 Does a long read.
11 Does a long write.
12 Does a disk seek.
13 Alternates disk reset.
14 Reads sector buffer.
15 Writes sector buffer.
16 Tests the specified drive to see if it is ready.
17 Recalibrates the drive.
18 Performs diagnostics on controller RAM.
19 Performs drive diagnostics.
20 Performs controller internal diagnostics.
Return Value
A status byte that can contain the following values:
0x00 Successful completion
0x01 Bad command
0x02 Address mark not found
0x03 Attempt to write to write-protected disk
0x04 Sector not found
0x05 Reset failed (hard disk)
0x06 Disk changed since last operation
0x07 Drive parameter activity failed
0x08 Direct memory access (DMA) overrun
0x09 Attempt to perform DMA across 64K
0x0A Bad sector detected
0x0B Bad track detected
0x0C Usupported track
0x11 CRC/ECC corrected data error
0x20 Controller failure
0x40 Seek operation failed
0x80 Attachment failed to respond
0xAA Drive not ready (hard disk)
0xBB Undefined errror occurred (hard disk)
0xCC Write fault occurred
0xE0 Status error
0xFF Sense operation failed
Compatibility
DOS Windows 3.x Phar Lap DOSX
See Also
absread abswrite _bios_disk
Example
/* Example for biosdisk */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <bios.h>

void main()
{
 int result;
 char buffer[512];

 printf("Attempting to read from drive A:\n");
 result = biosdisk(_DISK_READ,0,0,1,1,1,buffer);
}

_bios_keybrd, bioskey

Header
bios.h
Prototype
int _bios_keybrd(int flag);
int bioskey(int flag);
Description
The _bios_keybrd and bioskey functions pass flag to BIOS interrupt 0x16, the keyboard interrupt. The values for flag are:

Name Value Meaning
_KEYBRD_READ 0x00 Read the next key value from the keyboard input buffer. Wait for one if none are available.
_KEYBRD_READY 0x01 Determine if any keys are in the keyboard input buffer.
_KEYBRD_SHIFTSTATUS 0x02 Read the status of the shift keys.
_NKEYBRD_READ 0x10 Enhanced read
_NKEYBRD_READY 0x11 Enhanced ready
_NKEYBRD_SHIFTSTATUS 0x12 Enhanced shift status
Return Value
If flag is 0, the value returned is the key value. The ASCII value of the key is returned in the low byte, and the scan code in the high byte. If the low byte is 0, then the key value is not an ASCII key (it might be an arrow or function key).

If flag is 1, 0 is returned if there are no keys in the input buffer, otherwise the next key value is returned. The key value is not removed from the input buffer, and is still available to be read.

If flag is 2, the value returned is the state of the shift keys encoded into the bits as follows:

0x01 Right shift key is down
0x02 Left shift key is down
0x04 Ctrl key is down
0x08 Alt key is down
0x10 Scroll Lock is toggled
0x20 Num Lock is toggled
0x40 Caps Lock is toggled
0x80 Ins is toggled
Compatibility
DOS Windows 3.x Phar Lap DOSX
Example
/* Example for _bios_keybrd */

#include <bios.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

void main()
{
 int key, shift;
 int lastshift;

 while (1)
 {
   shift = _bios_keybrd(2);

   /* if shift status changes */
   if (shift != lastshift)
     printf("Shift = 0x%02x\n", shift);

   /* if a key is available */
   if (_bios_keybrd(1))
   {
     /* read the key */
     key = _bios_keybrd(0);
     if ((key & 0xFF) == 'q')
        break;
     printf("Key = 0x%04x\n", key);
   }

   lastshift = shift;
 }
}
Output
  1. Press the right shift key down, release it.
  2. Press the right shift key down, then the left, release the right then release the left.
  3. Press 'q' to quit.
Output looks like this:
Shift = 0x20
Shift = 0x21
Shift = 0x20
Shift = 0x21
Shift = 0x23
Shift = 0x22
Shift = 0x20

biosprint

Header
bios.h
Prototype
int biosprint(int cmd, int abyte, int port);
Description
The biosprint function performs printer functions using BIOS interrupt 0x17. The cmd argument specifies a print command; the abyte argument specifies the character to print, and the port argument specifies the port to which the printer is connected. Port numbers are zero-based. (That is, a port argument of 0 indicates LPT1; 1 indicates LPT2, and so on.)

The cmd argument specifies one of the following operations:
cmd operation
0 Print the character specified in the abyte argument.
1 Initialize the selected printer. Ignore abyte argument.
2 Return current printer status. Ignore abyte argument.
Return Value
The current printer status. Possible values are:
value meaning
0x01 Printer timed out
0x08 I/O error
0x10 Printer selected
0x20 Out of paper
0x40 Acknowledge
0x80 Printer not busy
Compatibility
DOS Windows 3.x Phar Lap DOSX
See Also
_bios_equiplist _bios_printer _bios_serialcom
Example
/* Example for biosprint */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <bios.h>

void main()
{
 int status, bit_number;
 char *description[] =
 {
    "Printer timed out",
    "Unknown status",
    "Unknown status",
    "I/O error",
    "Printer selected",
    "Out of paper",
    "Acknowledge",
    "Printer not busy"
 };

 status = biosprint(_PRINTER_STATUS,0,1);
 for (bit_number = 0; bit_number < 8; bit_number += 1)
  if (status & (1 << bit_number))
   printf("%s\n",description[bit_number]);
}
Output
I/O error
Acknowledge
Printer not busy

biostime

Header
bios.h
Prototype
long biostime(int cmd, long newtime);
Description
The biostime function either reads or sets the BIOS timer, using BIOS interrupt 0x1A. The cmd argument determines whether the time is to be read (cmd = 0) or set (cmd = 1). If the time is to be read, the function returns current BIOS time (in clock ticks since midnight). If the time is to be set, the BIOS time of day counter is set to the value of newtime. The BIOS timer counts ticks since midnight at a rate of approximately 18. 2 clock ticks per second.
Return Value
If the cmd argument is 0, the current value of the BIOS timer is returned. If the cmd argument is 1, the timer is set to the long value in the newtime argument.
Compatibility
DOS Windows 3.x Phar Lap DOSX
See Also
_bios_timeofday
Example
/* Example for biostime */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <bios.h>

void main()
{
 long ticks;

 ticks = biostime(0, 0L);
 printf("Ticks since midnight is %d\n",
   ticks);
}


Output
Ticks since midnight is 25622

_bios_disk

Header
bios.h
Prototype
int _bios_disk(unsigned service, struct diskinfo_t *info);
Description
_bios_disk is a direct interface to the BIOS disk control interrupt 0x13. service specifies the disk function desired; info specifies the disk parameters. This function is not available under DOSX.

Six services are available on a basic IBM PC. They are selected by service:

service Value Operation
_DISK_RESET 0 Causes a hard reset of the floppy disk controller and is useful after an error occurs. Ignores the info parameter.
_DISK_STATUS 1 Obtains the status of the last disk operation. Ignores the info parameter.
_DISK_READ 2 Reads one or more disk sectors into the memory buffer pointed to by buffer in the diskinfo_t structure. Requires all fields in the diskinfo_t structure, pointed to by info, be correctly set up.
_DISK_WRITE 3 Writes one or more disk sectors with data from the memory buffer pointed to by buffer in the diskinfo_t structure. Requires all fields in structure diskinfo_t, pointed to by info, be correctly set up.
_DISK_VERIFY 4 Verifies that disk sectors exist and are readable. Performs a CRC (cyclic redundancy check). Requires all fields in structure diskinfo_t, pointed to by info, be correctly set up.
_DISK_FORMAT 5 Formats the track specified in the head and track fields of the diskinfo_t structure pointed to by info. Only one track can be formatted in each call. The buffer field contains a set of sector markers, the format of which depends on the type of disk drive. See an IBM reference manual for marker formats.


The format of the diskinfo_t structure is:
struct diskinfo_t {
 unsigned drive;     /* drive number*/
 unsigned head;      /* head number*/
 unsigned track;     /* track number*/
 unsigned sector;    /* start sector no.*/
 unsigned nsectors;  /* sectors to process */
 void __far *buffer; /* Memory buffer to use */
};
Return Value
Depends on the service requested. Reset and format services do not return meaningful values. Read, write, and verify services return the number of sectors processed in the low byte; the high byte is 0. The status service, and if an error has occurred, the read, write, or verify service, places a code in the high byte of the return value.

The status codes are:
0x01 Invalid request / bad command
0x02 Address mark not found
0x04 Sector not found
0x05 Reset failure
0x07 Drive parameter activity failure
0x09 DMA overrun
0x0a Bad sector flag detected
0x10 Data read (ECC) error
0x11 Corrected data read (ECC) error
0x20 Controller failure
0x40 Seek error
0x80 Disk timed out / not responding
0xaa Drive not ready
0xbb Undefined error
0xcc Write fault
0xe0 Status error
0XFF Sense operation failed
Compatibility
DOS Windows 3.x Phar Lap DOSX
See Also
biosdisk
Example
/* Example for _bios_disk */

#include <bios.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

int lowbytes(int tomask)
{
 return tomask & 0x00FF;
}

int highbytes(int toshift)
{
 return toshift >> 8;
}

void main()
{
 int status;
 struct diskinfo_t disk;

 status = _bios_disk(1, &disk);
 status = highbytes(status);
 if (status != 0)
  printf("Last disk operation had error %x\n", status);
 else
  printf("Last disk operation completed OK.\n");
}
Output
Last disk operation completed OK.

_bios_equiplist, biosequip

Header
bios.h
Prototype
int _bios_equiplist(void);
Synonym
biosequip
Description
The _bios_equiplist function executes BIOS interrupt 0x11 to determine what equipment is present.
Return Value
A register value indicating what equipment is installed.
Bit Meaning
15,14 The number of printers attached
13 Not used
12 1 if a game adaptor is attached
11,10,9 The number of serial (RS232) ports
8 Not used
7,6 The number of diskette drives (maximum 4)
5,4 The initial video mode
00 Not used
01 40x25 color
10 80x25 color
11 Monochrome
3,2 Planar RAM size (11 = 64k which is normal)
1 Not used
0 Set if there are any diskette drives
Compatibility
DOS Windows 3.x Phar Lap DOSX
See Also
_bios_keybrd _bios_memsize _bios_printer _bios_serialcom _bios_disk
Example
/* Example for _bios_equiplist */

#include <bios.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

#define GAME_ADAPTOR 0x0c

void main()
{
 unsigned equipment;

 equipment = _bios_equiplist();

 if (equipment & GAME_ADAPTOR)
    printf("Game adaptor installed.\n");
 else
    printf("No game adaptor installed.\n");

}
Output
Game adaptor installed.

_bios_keybrd, bioskey

Header
bios.h
Prototype
int _bios_keybrd(int flag);
int bioskey(int flag);
Description
The _bios_keybrd and bioskey functions pass flag to BIOS interrupt 0x16, the keyboard interrupt. The values for flag are:

Macro flag Meaning
_KEYBRD_READ 0x00 Read the next key value from the keyboard input buffer. Wait for one if none are available.
_KEYBRD_READY 0x01 Determine if any keys are in the keyboard input buffer.
_KEYBRD_SHIFTSTATUS 0x02 Read the status of the shift keys.
_NKEYBRD_READ 0x10 Enhanced read
_NKEYBRD_READY 0x11 Enhanced ready
_NKEYBRD_SHIFTSTATUS 0x12 Enhanced shift status
Return Value
If flag is 0, the value returned is the key value. The ASCII value of
the key is returned in the low byte, and the scan code in the high
byte. If the low byte is 0, then the key value is not an ASCII key (it
might be an arrow or function key). If flag is 1, 0 is returned if
there are no keys in the input buffer, otherwise the next key value is
returned. The key value is not removed from the input buffer, and is
still available to be read. If flag is 2, the value returned is the state
of the shift keys encoded into the bits as follows:

0x01 Right shift key is down
0x02 Left shift key is down
0x04 Ctrl key is down
0x08 Alt key is down
0x10 Scroll Lock is toggled
0x20 Num Lock is toggled
0x40 Caps Lock is toggled
0x80 Ins is toggled
Compatibility
DOS Windows 3.x Phar Lap DOSX
Example
/* Example for _bios_keybrd */

#include <bios.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

void main()
{
 int key, shift;
 int lastshift;

 while (1)
 {
   shift = _bios_keybrd (2);

   /* if shift status changes */
   if (shift != lastshift)
      printf("Shift = 0x%02x\n", shift);

   /* if a key is available */
   if (_bios_keybrd(1))
   {
      /* read the key */
      key = _bios_keybrd(0);
      if ((key & 0xFF) == 'q')
        break;
      printf("Key = 0x%04x\n", key);
   }

   lastshift = shift;
 }
}
Output
Press the right shift key down, release it.
Press the right shift key down, then the left,
release the right
then release the left. Press 'q' to quit.
Output looks like this:

Shift = 0x20
Shift = 0x21
Shift = 0x20
Shift = 0x21
Shift = 0x23
Shift = 0x22
Shift = 0x20

_bios_memsize, biosmemory

Header
bios.h
Prototype
int _bios_memsize(void);
Synonym
biosmemory()
Description
The function _bios_memsize executes a BIOS interrupt 0x12, which is the memory size determination routine.
Return Value
Returns the maximum number of contiguous 1K memory blocks which are present, as an integer.
Compatibility
DOS Windows 3.x Phar Lap DOSX
See Also
_bios_equiplist
Example
/* Example for _bios_memsize */

#include <bios.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

void main()
{
 printf("The memory size of this system is %dK\n",
      _bios_memsize());
}
Output
The memory size of this system is 636K

_bios_printer

Header
bios.h
Prototype
int _bios_printer(unsigned service, unsigned printer, unsigned data);
Description
_bios_printer executes a BIOS interrupt 0x17, which is the printer interface routine. service determines which of three possible operations to perform:

service Value Operation
_PRINTER_WRITE 0 Write the low order byte of data to the printer which was specified in the printer argument.
_PRINTER_INIT 1 Initialize the selected printer. Ignore the data argument.
_PRINTER_STATUS 2 Return the current printer status. Ignore the data argument.


_bios_printer is not supported under windows.
Return Value
The low byte of the return value, for all three services, contains the printer status. Possible values are:

0x01 Printer timed out
0x08 I/O error
0x10 Printer selected
0x20 Out of paper
0x40 Acknowledge
0x80 Printer not busy
Compatibility
DOS Windows 3.x Phar Lap DOSX
See Also
_bios_equiplist biosprint
Example
/* Example for _bios_printer
*/
#include <bios.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

void main()
{

 unsigned i, data = 36;
 unsigned status;

 printf("Place printer offline and press [Enter]\n");
 getchar();
 status = _bios_printer(2, 0, data);
 printf("Status with printer offline: %x\n", status);

 printf("Press [Enter] to initialize printer\n");
 getchar();
 status = _bios_printer(1, 0, data);
 printf("Status after printer initialized: %x\n", status);

 printf("Press [Enter] to print\n");
 getchar();
 for (i = 0; i > 10; i++)
    _bios_printer(0, 0, data);

 status = _bios_printer(0, 0, '\n');
 printf("Status after printing %d %c's:%x\n", i, data, status);
}
Output
Place printer offline and press [Enter]
Status with printer offline:
Press [Enter] to initialize printer
Status after printer initialized:
Press [Enter] to print
Status after printing $'s:

_bios_serialcom, bioscom

Header
bios.h
Prototype
int _bios_serialcom(unsigned service, unsigned port, unsigned data);
Synonym
bioscom()
Description
This function uses the BIOS to provide serial RS232 operations. The function is not supported under Microsoft Windows. The IBM BIOS allows only polled operation of the serial ports, not interrupt operation. The port argument is the number of the serial port to address. This is set to 0 for COM1 and 1 for COM2.

Four services are provided:
_COM_INIT, or 0 Set up the serial port as specified in the data argument (see below).
_COM_SEND, or 1 Transmit the data character through the selected serial port
_COM_RECEIVE, or 2 Accepts an input character through the selected serial port.
_COM_STATUS, or 3 Return the current status of the selected serial port.


The data argument for the initialize service is created by OR'ing together one value from each of the following categories.
Baud Rate Value
_COM_110 0
_COM_150 32
_COM_300 64
_COM_600 96
_COM_1200 128
_COM_2400 160
_COM_4800 192
_COM_9600 224


Data Word Length Value
_COM_CHR7 2
_COM_CHR8 3


# of Stop Bits Value
_COM_STOP1 0
_COM_STOP2 4


Parity Value
_COM_NOPARITY 0
_COM_ODDPARITY 8
_COM_EVENPARITY 24
Return Value
A 16-bit integer whose high byte contains status bits. The low byte
varies according to the service requested. High byte status bits are:
Bit Meaning when set
15 Timed out
14 Transmitter Shift register empty
13 Transmitter Holding register empty
12 Break detected
11 Framing Error
10 Parity Error
9 Overrun Error
8 Data Ready


If the send service is requested but data cannot be sent, bit 15 is set.

If the receive service is requested, the byte read is returned in the low byte. If an error occurrs, at least one bit in the high byte is set to indicate the source of the error.

If the service requested is either initialize or status, additional status information are returned in the low byte:
Bit Meaning when set
7 Data Carrier Detect (DCD) state
6 Ring Indicator (RI) state
5 Data Set Ready (DSR) state
4 Clear To Send (CTS) state
3 Change in DCD
2 Change in RI
1 Change in DSR
0 Change in CTS
Compatibility
DOS Windows 3.x Phar Lap DOSX
Example
/* Example for _bios_serialcom */

#include <bios.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

void main()
{
 unsigned com1_status;

 com1_status = _bios_serialcom(3,0,0);
 printf("Com1 status : %x\n",
        com1_status);
}
Output
Com1 status : 6000

_bios_timeofday

Header
bios.h
Prototype
int _bios_timeofday(unsigned mode, long *btime);
Description
_bios_timeofday provides an interface to the IBM BIOS time of day functions, interrupt 0x1A (26). mode determines whether the time is to be read or set:

mode Value Meaning
_TIME_GETCLOCK 0 Retrieve time
_TIME_SETCLOCK 1 Set time


If the time is to be read, the current BIOS time (in clock ticks since midnight) is placed in the long integer pointed to by btime. Otherwise, the BIOS time of day counter is set to the value of that long. There are approximately 18. 2 clock ticks per second.
Return Value
If mode is 0, the function returns 1 if the system clock has passed midnight since the last time it was read. Otherwise, it returns 0. If mode is 1, no meaningful value is returned.
Compatibility
DOS Windows 3.x Phar Lap DOSX
See Also
biostime
Example
/* Example for _bios_timeofday */

#include <bios.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

void main()
{
 unsigned hours, minutes;
 long btime;

 _bios_timeofday (0,& btime);

 btime = (btime* 10)/ 182;
 minutes = (unsigned) btime / 60;
 hours = minutes / 60;
 minutes %= 60;

 printf("The time is %2d:%2d\n",
        hours, minutes);
}
Output
The time is 15:34

_int86, int86_real, int86

Header
dos.h
Prototype
int _int86(int intnum, union _REGS *regsin, union REGS *regsout);
Description
int int86_real(int intnum, union _REGS *regsin, union REGS *regsout); The _int86 functions perform a software interrupt, where intnum is the interrupt number (0.. 255), regsin is a pointer to a structure containing the values of the registers AX, BX, CX, DX, SI and DI to be passed to the interrupt, and regsout is a pointer to a structure into which the return values of the registers will be written.

The _REGS structure is defined in dos.h. Consult your system hardware and software manuals to determine what the interrupt numbers are and what they do on your machine.

In the 32-bit memory models, the functions _bdos, bdos, bdosx, _int86, int86, _int86x, int86x, _intdos, intdos, _intdosx, and intdosx filter parameters sent to the real mode interrupt. For example, if DOS function 40h (write) is detected, the source buffer is copied to a buffer in conventional memory (dos-buffer) and a pointer to dos-buffer is passed to DOS, since DOS could not properly use the buffer located in extended memory. If the information passed is larger than dos-buffer, there are multiple calls to DOS to transfer all information, which may be much larger than 64k. Where pointers are passed to these functions, they are assumed to contain protected mode addresses. The filtering routine used for these functions assumes that all far pointers passed in registers to DOS have a segment address of DGROUP. If you use int86x to execute INT 21h and specify selectors other than DGROUP, the results will be unpredictable. It is possible to bypass this filtering by using the function int_86real instead of int86. This function bypasses all protected mode filtering in both the Phar Lap and DOSX extenders and executes the interrupt in real mode. It can be used to retrieve real mode segment values from the BIOS or from DOS if desired. Under the X memory model, not all DOS calls are supported in the filtering process. DOS calls (listed in hex) that are completely supported include:

0..9, b, d, e, 19, 2a..2e, 30, 33, 36, 39..43, 45..47, 4c..4f, 54..58, 5b..5c, 63, 66..68

Partial support is provided for:

0c AL = 0AH not supported
1a DTA set to a location in conventional memory
2f Get DTA returns protected mode address of DTA in conventional memory
44 Subfunctions 2, 3, 4, 5, c, and d are not supported
59 Information at ES: DI not available
5a Information at ds: dx is not available
62 returns protected mode selector, not real mode segment

Functions not supported:

0a, 0f..17, 1b..1c, 21..29, 31, 35, 38, 48..4b, 5e..5f, 65
Synonym
Function: int86
Return Value
The _int86 function returns the value in the AX register at the completion of the interrupt. The state of the carry flag can be determined from x. cflag in regsout. Do not use _int86 for interrupts 0x25 or 0x26. Use dos_abs_disk_read / write for those.
Compatibility
_int86: DOS Windows 3. x Phar Lap/ DOSX int86_real: DOS Windows 3. x Phar Lap/ DOSX
See Also
_int86x int86x_real _intdos
Example
/* Example for _int86 */

#include <dos.h>
#include <stdio.h>

void main()
{
 union _REGS inregs, outregs;
 unsigned char last_flags, new_flags;
 int n;
 char *description[] =
 {
    "right shift",
    "left shift",
    "control",
    "alt",
    "scroll lock",
    "num lock",
    "caps lock",
    "insert"
 };
 printf("Press keyboard toggles and shift
         keys\n");
 printf("Press ctrl-break to quit\n");
 for (;;)
 {
   inregs.h.ah = 2; /* get keyboard flags */
   _int86(0x16, &inregs, &outregs);
   new_flags = outregs.h.al ^ last_flags;
   if (new_flags)
    for (n = 0; n < 8; n += 1)
     if (new_flags & (1 << n))
      printf("%s %s\n", description[n],
         outregs.h.al & (1 << n) ?
            "on" : "off");
   last_flags = outregs.h.al;
 }
}
Output
Press keyboard toggles and shift keys
Press ctrl-break to quit
alt on
left shift on
left shift off
alt off
insert on
right shift on
alt on
control on
right shift off
control off
alt off
num lock off
num lock on
control on
^C

_int86x, int86x_real, int86x

Header
dos.h
Prototype
int _int86x(int intnum, union _REGS *regsin, union _REGS *regsout, struct _SREGS *segregs);

int int86x_real(int intnum, union _REGS *regsin, union _REGS *regsout, struct _SREGS *segregs);
Description
The _int86x and int86x_real functions perform a software interrupt, where intnum is the interrupt number (0 through 255). regsin is a pointer to a structure containing the values of the registers AX, BX, CX, DX, SI and DI to be passed to the interrupt. segregs is a pointer to a structure containing the values of the segment registers to be passed to the interrupt. These functions also are used to return the values in the segment registers after the interrupt has completed. regsout is a pointer to a structure into which the return values of the registers will be written. The _REGS, and _SREGS structures are defined in dos.h. Consult your system hardware and software manuals to determine what the interrupt numbers are and what they do on your machine.

The int86x_real function is used with the 32-bit models. For a further explanation of performing interrupts in the 32-bit model, see _int86, int86_real.
Synonym
Function: int86x
Return Value
The _int86x and int86x functions return the value in the AX register at the completion of the interrupt. The state of the carry flag can be determined from x. cflag in regsout. Do not use _int86x for interrupts 0x25 or 0x26. For _int86x, if an error occurs, the cflag field in regsout is non-zero and _doserrno is set to the corresponding error code.
Compatibility
_int86x: DOS Windows 3.x Phar Lap/ DOSX
int86x_real: DOS Windows 3.x Phar Lap/ DOSX
See Also
_int86 int86_real _intdos _intdosx
Example
See _int86
Home | Compiler & Tools | IDDE Reference | STL | Search | Download | Forums