•
On day 9, he only completes one
module.
•
On day 10, he does not complete a
module.

What do we know?
•
Not much, just yet.
•
Looking at the data from another
student may help.
•
Look at the graph on page 62.

Examining Student
2
’
s Graph
•
This student shows the same dip in
work completion on days 9 and 10.
•
The data also shows that Student 2
could not be working on the same
modules as Student 1 because he
completed more modules on days
1-8.

A possibility
•
Given that both students
demonstrated a drop in module
completion on the same days, it is
a possibility that something was
happening on those days to
influence their work.
•
Looking at the two graphs and
seeing the similarities gives clues.

Interpreting the
Data
•
Frequency graphs
•
make it _____________ to see trends.
•
If the amount of work completed
increases or decreases over time, it is
easier to see when the data are graphed.
•
ESPECIALLY if the change is
_____________________.
•
See the 2nd graph on page 62.

A few observations
•
The graph on page 62 shows
•
a more gradual increase
•
a lot more ________________ in
the number of modules
completed each day

Cumulative
Frequency Graphs
•
Definition
•
a graph in which each data
point indicates the ____________
number of times the behavior
has occurred up to that point.

Cumulative
Frequency Graph
•
Shows the total number of times
the behavior has occurred during
that _______________________
periods.

An Example
•
Let
’
s look at the graph on page 64
of your text.
•
It
’
s the same data from the
previous graphs.

Same Data/Two
Graphs
•
Simple frequency - shows how
much was completed on a specific
day
•
Cumulative frequency - shows the
________________ amount of work
completed as of a specific day

Days 9 & 10 -
Simple Frequency
Graph
•
Remember from simple frequency
graphs:
•
On days 9 and 10, the student
completed one/no modules.
•
On the graph, it shows up as a
dip/_______________ slope of the
line.

Days 9 & 10 - Cumulative
Graph
•
There is ________ dip/downward slope.
•
The line progresses slightly upward and
then levels off (stays straight).
•
A horizontal line on a CG means the
behavior did not occur at all.
•
A straight line that trends upward means
the behavior is occurring at a steady rate.

And if the line goes
down?
•
It means someone made a
____________.
•
With a CG, the line can ___________
go down, because you are always
adding the current day
’
s data to the
previous data.
•
Example:
The student cannot
complete minus two modules.

The Beauty of
Graphs
•
Allows us to see the effects of
variables on behavior.
•
For example, if you are trying to
solve a behavior problem and you
implement a plan, you can see if
the rate goes up or down over
time.
•
It
’
s a more _________________ way to
evaluate the intervention.

Evaluating
Interventions
•
It
’
s different in ABA.
•
Many psychological studies involve
comparing two or more groups of people.
•
Each group is exposed to a different
condition.