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digitalmars.D.announce - [i18n] Gettext 1.0.1 released

reply Bastiaan Veelo <Bastiaan Veelo.net> writes:
Two years ago, H. S. Teoh presented a proof of concept for 
[automatic extraction of gettext-style translation 
strings](https://forum.dlang.org/post/mailman.2526.1585832475.31109.digitalma
s-d puremagic.com). I recently combined that idea with the existing
[mofile](https://code.dlang.org/packages/mofile) package for reading
translation tables in GNU gettext format, and the result is a feature rich
solution for the support of multiple natural languages in D applications:
https://code.dlang.org/packages/gettext. Perhaps not surprisingly, it can do
more than GNU gettext itself.

I'd like to thank Steven Schveighoffer and Adam Ruppe for 
[valuable forum 
assistance](https://forum.dlang.org/post/afkbwsdrspndwgkairaz forum.dlang.org),
and SARC B.V. for sponsoring. Some extracts from the
[readme](https://github.com/veelo/gettext#readme) are included below:



- Concise translation markers that can be aliased to your 
preference.
- All marked strings that are seen by the compiler are extracted 
automatically.
- All (current and future) [D string literal 
formats](https://dlang.org/spec/lex.html#string_literals) are 
supported.
- Static initializers of fields, constants, immutables, manifest 
constants and anonimous enums can be marked as translatable (a D 
specialty).
- Concatenations of translatable strings, untranslated strings 
and single chars are supported, even in initializers.
- Arrays of translatable strings are supported, also when 
statically initialized.
- Plural forms are language dependent, and play nice with format 
strings.
- Multiple identical strings are translated once, unless they are 
given different contexts.
- Notes to the translator can be attached to individual 
translatable strings.
- Code occurrences of strings are communicated to the translator.
- Available languages are discovered and selected at run-time.
- Platfom independent, not linked with C libraries.
- Automated generation of the translation table template.
- Automated merging into existing translations (requires [GNU 
`gettext` utilities](https://www.gnu.org/software/gettext/)).
- Automated generation of binary translation tables (requires 
[GNU `gettext` utilities](https://www.gnu.org/software/gettext/)).
- Includes utility for listing unmarked strings in the project.





Prepend `tr!` in front of every string literal that needs to be 
translated. For instance:
```d
writeln(tr!"This string is to be translated");
writeln("This string will remain untranslated.");
```



Sentences that should change in plural form depending on a number 
should supply both singlular and plural forms with the number 
like this:
```d
// Before:
writefln("%d green bottle(s) hanging on the wall", n);
// After:
writeln(tr!("one green bottle hanging on the wall",
             "%d green bottles hanging on the wall")(n));
```
Note that the format specifier (`%d`, or `%s`, etc.) is optional 
in the singular form.

Many languages have not just two forms like the English language 
does, and translations in those languages can supply all the 
forms that the particular language requires. This is handled by 
the translator, and is demonstrated in [the example 
below](https://github.com/veelo/gettext#example-1).



If `tr` is too verbose for you, you can change it to whatever you 
want:
```d
import gettext : _ = tr;
writeln(_!"No green bottles...");
```



Translatable strings can be format strings, used with 
`std.format` and `std.stdio.writefln` etc. These format strings 
do support plural forms, but the argument that determines the 
form must be supplied to `tr` and not to `format`. The 
corresponding format specifier will not be seen by `format` as it 
will have been replaced with a string by `tr`. Example:
```d
format(tr!("Welcome %s, you may make a wish",
            "Welcome %s, you may make %d wishes")(n), name);
```
The format specifier that selects the form is the last specifier 
in the format string (here `%d`). In many sentences, however, the 
specifier that should select the form cannot be the last. In 
these cases, format specifiers must be given a position argument, 
where the highest position determines the form:
```d
foreach (i, where; [tr!"hand", tr!"bush"])
     format(tr!("One bird in the %1$s", "%2$d birds in the 
%1$s")(i + 1), where);
```
Again, the specifier with the highest position argument will 
never be seen by `format`. On a side note, some translations may 
need a reordering of words, so translators may need to use 
position arguments in their translated format strings anyway.

Note: Specifiers with and without a position argument must not be 
mixed.



Translators will be able to produce the best translations if they 
get to work with full sentences, like
```d
auto message = format(tr!`Could not open the file "%s" for 
reading.`, file);
```
However, in support of legacy code, concatenations of strings do 
work:
```d
auto message = tr!`Could not open the file "` ~ file ~ tr!`" for 
reading.`;
```



Optionally, two kinds of attributes can be passed to `tr`, in the 
form of an associative array initializer. These are for passing 
notes to the translator and for disambiguating identical 
sentences with different meanings.



Sometimes a sentence can be interpreted to mean different things, 
and then it is important to be able to clarify things for the 
translator. Here is an example of how to do this:
```d
auto name = tr!("Walter Bright", [Tr.note: "Proper name. 
Phonetically: ˈwɔltər braɪt"]);
```

The GNU `gettext` manual has a section [about the translation of 
proper 
names](https://www.gnu.org/software/gettext/manual/html_node/Names.html).



Multiple occurrences of the same sentence are combined into one 
translation by default. In some cases, that may not work well. 
Some language, for example, may need to translate identical menu 
items in different menus differently. These can be disambiguated 
by adding a context like so:
```d
auto labelOpenFile    = tr!("Open", [Tr.context: "Menu|File"]);
auto labelOpenPrinter = tr!("Open", [Tr.context: 
"Menu|File|Printer"]);
```

Notes and comments can be combined in any order:
```d
auto message1 = tr!("Review the draft.", [Tr.context: 
"document"]);
auto message2 = tr!("Review the draft.", [Tr.context: "nautical",
                                           Tr.note: `Nautical 
term! "Draft" = how deep ` ~
                                                    `the bottom of 
the ship is below ` ~
                                                    `the water 
level.`]);
```



Use the [following 
functions](https://gettext.dpldocs.info/v1.0.1/gettext.html#function) to
discover translation tables, get the language code for a table and activate a
translation:
```d
string[] availableLanguages(string moPath = null)
string languageCode()  safe
string languageCode(string moFile)  safe
void selectLanguage(string moFile)  safe
```
Note that any translation that happens before a language is 
selected, results in the value of the hard coded string.



See the [full readme](https://github.com/veelo/gettext#readme) 
for adding and updating translations, impact on footprint and 
performance, limitations, and lots more.

Here's the result of two runs of one of the 
[examples](https://github.com/veelo/gettext/tree/main/tests):
```
Hello! My name is Joe.
I'm counting one apple.
Hello! My name is Schmoe.
I'm counting 3 apples.
Hello! My name is Jane.
I'm counting 5 apples.
Hello! My name is Doe.
I'm counting 7 apples.
```

```
Привіт! Мене звати Joe.
Я рахую 1 яблуко.
Привіт! Мене звати Schmoe.
Я рахую 3 яблука.
Привіт! Мене звати Jane.
Я рахую 5 яблук.
Привіт! Мене звати Doe.
Я рахую 7 яблук.
```

Notice how the translation of "apple" in the last translation 
changes with three different endings dependent on the number of 
apples.

-- Bastiaan.
Jul 18
next sibling parent reply Ogi <ogion.art gmail.com> writes:
On Monday, 18 July 2022 at 08:33:15 UTC, Bastiaan Veelo wrote:
 ...
Is this tested on Windows? ``` Performing "debug" build using C:\Apps\dmd\windows\bin64\dmd.exe for x86_64. gettexttest ~master: building configuration "default"... Running pre-build commands... Performing "debug" build using C:\Apps\dmd\windows\bin64\dmd.exe for x86_64. gettexttest ~master: target for configuration "xgettext" is up to date. Target is a library. Skipping execution. Command failed with exit code 2: dub run --config=xgettext ``` Gettext is installed and present in PATH.
Jul 19
parent reply Bastiaan Veelo <Bastiaan Veelo.net> writes:
On Tuesday, 19 July 2022 at 20:20:29 UTC, Ogi wrote:
 Is this tested on Windows?
Yes, it is developed on Windows. Do the included tests work for you?
 ```
 Target is a library. Skipping execution.
 ```
That is not right. Are you developing a library or an application? If you cannot get it to work, feel free to [open an issue](https://github.com/veelo/gettext/issues) and include your `dub.json`. -- Bastiaan.
Jul 20
parent Ogi <ogion.art gmail.com> writes:
On Wednesday, 20 July 2022 at 09:27:01 UTC, Bastiaan Veelo wrote:
 That is not right. Are you developing a library or an 
 application?
Hmm, I got it working by explicitly setting `targetType` to `executable`. It seems configuration recommended by Readme breaks Dub’s automatic target recognition.
Jul 21
prev sibling parent Jesse Phillips <Jesse.K.Phillips+D gmail.com> writes:

application without gettext usage.
Jul 21