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digitalmars.D - putting more smarts into a == b

reply Andrei Alexandrescu <SeeWebsiteForEmail erdani.org> writes:
Consider two objects a and b with a of class type. Currently, the 
expression a == b is blindly rewritten as a.opEquals(b). I argue it 
should be rewritten into a call to an (imaginary/inlined) function 
equalObjects(a, b), with the following definition:

bool equalObjects(T, U)(T a, U b) if (is(T == class))
{
     static if (is(U == class))
     {
         if (b is null) return a is null;
         if (a is null) return b is null;
     }
     else
     {
         enforce(a !is null);
     }
     return a.opEquals(b);
}

This hoists the identity test outside the opEquals call and also deals 
with null references. What do you think?


Andrei
Sep 26 2009
next sibling parent reply Jarrett Billingsley <jarrett.billingsley gmail.com> writes:
On Sat, Sep 26, 2009 at 9:32 PM, Andrei Alexandrescu
<SeeWebsiteForEmail erdani.org> wrote:
 Consider two objects a and b with a of class type. Currently, the express=

 a =3D=3D b is blindly rewritten as a.opEquals(b). I argue it should be re=

 into a call to an (imaginary/inlined) function equalObjects(a, b), with t=

 following definition:

 bool equalObjects(T, U)(T a, U b) if (is(T =3D=3D class))
 {
 =A0 =A0static if (is(U =3D=3D class))
 =A0 =A0{
 =A0 =A0 =A0 =A0if (b is null) return a is null;
 =A0 =A0 =A0 =A0if (a is null) return b is null;
 =A0 =A0}
 =A0 =A0else
 =A0 =A0{
 =A0 =A0 =A0 =A0enforce(a !is null);
 =A0 =A0}
 =A0 =A0return a.opEquals(b);
 }

 This hoists the identity test outside the opEquals call and also deals wi=

 null references. What do you think?

I'm almost sure that C# does this already, and it's a useful behavior. Of course, with nonnull types, the check for null wouldn't even need to exiiiiiiiist.... ;)
Sep 26 2009
parent Christopher Wright <dhasenan gmail.com> writes:
Jarrett Billingsley wrote:
 On Sat, Sep 26, 2009 at 9:32 PM, Andrei Alexandrescu
 <SeeWebsiteForEmail erdani.org> wrote:
 Consider two objects a and b with a of class type. Currently, the expression
 a == b is blindly rewritten as a.opEquals(b). I argue it should be rewritten
 into a call to an (imaginary/inlined) function equalObjects(a, b), with the
 following definition:

 bool equalObjects(T, U)(T a, U b) if (is(T == class))
 {
    static if (is(U == class))
    {
        if (b is null) return a is null;
        if (a is null) return b is null;
    }
    else
    {
        enforce(a !is null);
    }
    return a.opEquals(b);
 }

 This hoists the identity test outside the opEquals call and also deals with
 null references. What do you think?

I'm almost sure that C# does this already, and it's a useful behavior.

C# operator overloads are of the form: public static ReturnType operator+(Arg1 arg1, Arg2 arg2) {} Object.operator== is defined to call arg1.Equals(arg2) if arg1 isn't null. But this isn't a feature of operator overloads.
 Of course, with nonnull types, the check for null wouldn't even need
 to exiiiiiiiist.... ;)

How clever and insightful of you!
Sep 27 2009
prev sibling next sibling parent bearophile <bearophileHUGS lycos.com> writes:
Andrei Alexandrescu:

 This hoists the identity test outside the opEquals call and also deals 
 with null references. What do you think?

I like it, is also saves some boring code. Bye, bearophile
Sep 26 2009
prev sibling next sibling parent Ary Borenszweig <ary esperanto.org.ar> writes:
Andrei Alexandrescu wrote:
 Consider two objects a and b with a of class type. Currently, the 
 expression a == b is blindly rewritten as a.opEquals(b). I argue it 
 should be rewritten into a call to an (imaginary/inlined) function 
 equalObjects(a, b)

Definitely!
Sep 26 2009
prev sibling next sibling parent reply "Robert Jacques" <sandford jhu.edu> writes:
On Sat, 26 Sep 2009 21:32:13 -0400, Andrei Alexandrescu  
<SeeWebsiteForEmail erdani.org> wrote:

 Consider two objects a and b with a of class type. Currently, the  
 expression a == b is blindly rewritten as a.opEquals(b). I argue it  
 should be rewritten into a call to an (imaginary/inlined) function  
 equalObjects(a, b), with the following definition:

 bool equalObjects(T, U)(T a, U b) if (is(T == class))
 {
      static if (is(U == class))
      {
          if (b is null) return a is null;
          if (a is null) return b is null;
      }
      else
      {
          enforce(a !is null);
      }
      return a.opEquals(b);
 }

 This hoists the identity test outside the opEquals call and also deals  
 with null references. What do you think?


 Andrei

I like this. I think optimizing away opEquals for identical objects would also be a good idea: static if (is(U == class)) if(a is b || a is null || b is null) return a is b; else enforce(a !is null);
Sep 26 2009
parent reply Andrei Alexandrescu <SeeWebsiteForEmail erdani.org> writes:
Robert Jacques wrote:
 On Sat, 26 Sep 2009 21:32:13 -0400, Andrei Alexandrescu 
 <SeeWebsiteForEmail erdani.org> wrote:
 
 Consider two objects a and b with a of class type. Currently, the 
 expression a == b is blindly rewritten as a.opEquals(b). I argue it 
 should be rewritten into a call to an (imaginary/inlined) function 
 equalObjects(a, b), with the following definition:

 bool equalObjects(T, U)(T a, U b) if (is(T == class))
 {
      static if (is(U == class))
      {
          if (b is null) return a is null;
          if (a is null) return b is null;
      }
      else
      {
          enforce(a !is null);
      }
      return a.opEquals(b);
 }

 This hoists the identity test outside the opEquals call and also deals 
 with null references. What do you think?


 Andrei

I like this. I think optimizing away opEquals for identical objects would also be a good idea: static if (is(U == class)) if(a is b || a is null || b is null) return a is b; else enforce(a !is null);

This code has an inefficiency, it seems, because it makes a bit more checks than necessary (e.g. checks a is b twice). Let's simplify: bool equalObjects(T, U)(T a, U b) if (is(T == class)) { static if (is(U == class)) { if (a is b) return true; if (b is null || a is null) return false; } else { enforce(a !is null); } return a.opEquals(b); } Andrei
Sep 27 2009
parent Andrei Alexandrescu <SeeWebsiteForEmail erdani.org> writes:
Robert Jacques wrote:
 On Sun, 27 Sep 2009 09:11:38 -0400, Andrei Alexandrescu 
 <SeeWebsiteForEmail erdani.org> wrote:
 
 Robert Jacques wrote:
 On Sat, 26 Sep 2009 21:32:13 -0400, Andrei Alexandrescu 
 <SeeWebsiteForEmail erdani.org> wrote:

 Consider two objects a and b with a of class type. Currently, the 
 expression a == b is blindly rewritten as a.opEquals(b). I argue it 
 should be rewritten into a call to an (imaginary/inlined) function 
 equalObjects(a, b), with the following definition:

 bool equalObjects(T, U)(T a, U b) if (is(T == class))
 {
      static if (is(U == class))
      {
          if (b is null) return a is null;
          if (a is null) return b is null;
      }
      else
      {
          enforce(a !is null);
      }
      return a.opEquals(b);
 }

 This hoists the identity test outside the opEquals call and also 
 deals with null references. What do you think?


 Andrei

would also be a good idea: static if (is(U == class)) if(a is b || a is null || b is null) return a is b; else enforce(a !is null);

This code has an inefficiency, it seems, because it makes a bit more checks than necessary (e.g. checks a is b twice). Let's simplify: bool equalObjects(T, U)(T a, U b) if (is(T == class)) { static if (is(U == class)) { if (a is b) return true; if (b is null || a is null) return false; } else { enforce(a !is null); } return a.opEquals(b); } Andrei

Are the extra branch and return statement faster?

Just as fast. Short-circuit evaluation also generates code with branches.
 Besides, I thought the 
 optimizer would cache a is b:
 
 auto a_is_b = a is b;
 if (a_is_b || b is null || a is null) return a_is_b;

I'm trying to not rely on such... Andrei
Sep 27 2009
prev sibling next sibling parent reply Frank Benoit <keinfarbton googlemail.com> writes:
Andrei Alexandrescu schrieb:
 Consider two objects a and b with a of class type. Currently, the
 expression a == b is blindly rewritten as a.opEquals(b). I argue it
 should be rewritten into a call to an (imaginary/inlined) function
 equalObjects(a, b), with the following definition:
 
 bool equalObjects(T, U)(T a, U b) if (is(T == class))
 {
     static if (is(U == class))
     {
         if (b is null) return a is null;
         if (a is null) return b is null;
     }
     else
     {
         enforce(a !is null);
     }
     return a.opEquals(b);
 }
 
 This hoists the identity test outside the opEquals call and also deals
 with null references. What do you think?
 
 
 Andrei

What about interfaces?
Sep 27 2009
next sibling parent Frank Benoit <keinfarbton googlemail.com> writes:
Frank Benoit schrieb:
 What about interfaces?

I mean, this is a point that annoyes me a lot in D, that interfaces (instances) cannot be treated like objects. I cannot do if( someiface == someobj ){ ... } With that technique, the compiler could do a dynamic cast to Object in place, do the null checks and then call opEquals. Certainly, this should also work for the other methods of Objects like toHash, toString, ...
Sep 27 2009
prev sibling next sibling parent reply Andrei Alexandrescu <SeeWebsiteForEmail erdani.org> writes:
Frank Benoit wrote:
 Andrei Alexandrescu schrieb:
 Consider two objects a and b with a of class type. Currently, the
 expression a == b is blindly rewritten as a.opEquals(b). I argue it
 should be rewritten into a call to an (imaginary/inlined) function
 equalObjects(a, b), with the following definition:

 bool equalObjects(T, U)(T a, U b) if (is(T == class))
 {
     static if (is(U == class))
     {
         if (b is null) return a is null;
         if (a is null) return b is null;
     }
     else
     {
         enforce(a !is null);
     }
     return a.opEquals(b);
 }

 This hoists the identity test outside the opEquals call and also deals
 with null references. What do you think?


 Andrei

What about interfaces?

Good question! What do they do now? I ran this: interface A {} class Widget : A {} void main() { auto a = cast(A) new Widget; A b = null; writeln(a == b); writeln(b == a); } To my surprise, the program printed false twice. If I replace A with Widget inside main, the program prints false then crashes with the mythical segfault :o). So how are interfaces compared? Andrei
Sep 27 2009
parent reply Frank Benoit <keinfarbton googlemail.com> writes:
Andrei Alexandrescu schrieb:
 Frank Benoit wrote:
 Andrei Alexandrescu schrieb:
 Consider two objects a and b with a of class type. Currently, the
 expression a == b is blindly rewritten as a.opEquals(b). I argue it
 should be rewritten into a call to an (imaginary/inlined) function
 equalObjects(a, b), with the following definition:

 bool equalObjects(T, U)(T a, U b) if (is(T == class))
 {
     static if (is(U == class))
     {
         if (b is null) return a is null;
         if (a is null) return b is null;
     }
     else
     {
         enforce(a !is null);
     }
     return a.opEquals(b);
 }

 This hoists the identity test outside the opEquals call and also deals
 with null references. What do you think?


 Andrei

What about interfaces?

Good question! What do they do now? I ran this: interface A {} class Widget : A {} void main() { auto a = cast(A) new Widget; A b = null; writeln(a == b); writeln(b == a); } To my surprise, the program printed false twice. If I replace A with Widget inside main, the program prints false then crashes with the mythical segfault :o). So how are interfaces compared? Andrei

Hm, i would have expected it not to compile, because A does not have opEquals. In DWT, I cast always first to Object. Java> if( intf1.equals(intf2) ){ D1.0> if( ((cast(Object)intf1).opEquals( cast(Object)intf2 )){
Sep 27 2009
parent reply Andrei Alexandrescu <SeeWebsiteForEmail erdani.org> writes:
Frank Benoit wrote:
 Andrei Alexandrescu schrieb:
 Frank Benoit wrote:
 Andrei Alexandrescu schrieb:
 Consider two objects a and b with a of class type. Currently, the
 expression a == b is blindly rewritten as a.opEquals(b). I argue it
 should be rewritten into a call to an (imaginary/inlined) function
 equalObjects(a, b), with the following definition:

 bool equalObjects(T, U)(T a, U b) if (is(T == class))
 {
     static if (is(U == class))
     {
         if (b is null) return a is null;
         if (a is null) return b is null;
     }
     else
     {
         enforce(a !is null);
     }
     return a.opEquals(b);
 }

 This hoists the identity test outside the opEquals call and also deals
 with null references. What do you think?


 Andrei


interface A {} class Widget : A {} void main() { auto a = cast(A) new Widget; A b = null; writeln(a == b); writeln(b == a); } To my surprise, the program printed false twice. If I replace A with Widget inside main, the program prints false then crashes with the mythical segfault :o). So how are interfaces compared? Andrei

Hm, i would have expected it not to compile, because A does not have opEquals. In DWT, I cast always first to Object. Java> if( intf1.equals(intf2) ){ D1.0> if( ((cast(Object)intf1).opEquals( cast(Object)intf2 )){

I think in D the cast is inserted automatically. Walter? Andrei
Sep 27 2009
next sibling parent Frank Benoit <keinfarbton googlemail.com> writes:
Andrei Alexandrescu schrieb:
 Frank Benoit wrote:
 In DWT, I cast always first to Object.
 Java> if( intf1.equals(intf2) ){
 D1.0> if( ((cast(Object)intf1).opEquals( cast(Object)intf2 )){

I think in D the cast is inserted automatically. Walter? Andrei

there is a related bug report http://d.puremagic.com/issues/show_bug.cgi?id=2794
Sep 27 2009
prev sibling parent Ary Borenszweig <ary esperanto.org.ar> writes:
Andrei Alexandrescu wrote:
 Frank Benoit wrote:
 Andrei Alexandrescu schrieb:
 Frank Benoit wrote:
 Andrei Alexandrescu schrieb:
 Consider two objects a and b with a of class type. Currently, the
 expression a == b is blindly rewritten as a.opEquals(b). I argue it
 should be rewritten into a call to an (imaginary/inlined) function
 equalObjects(a, b), with the following definition:

 bool equalObjects(T, U)(T a, U b) if (is(T == class))
 {
     static if (is(U == class))
     {
         if (b is null) return a is null;
         if (a is null) return b is null;
     }
     else
     {
         enforce(a !is null);
     }
     return a.opEquals(b);
 }

 This hoists the identity test outside the opEquals call and also deals
 with null references. What do you think?


 Andrei


interface A {} class Widget : A {} void main() { auto a = cast(A) new Widget; A b = null; writeln(a == b); writeln(b == a); } To my surprise, the program printed false twice. If I replace A with Widget inside main, the program prints false then crashes with the mythical segfault :o). So how are interfaces compared? Andrei

Hm, i would have expected it not to compile, because A does not have opEquals. In DWT, I cast always first to Object. Java> if( intf1.equals(intf2) ){ D1.0> if( ((cast(Object)intf1).opEquals( cast(Object)intf2 )){

I think in D the cast is inserted automatically. Walter? Andrei

Using the compile-time view of Descent, if I have this code: --- interface I { } class C { } int main(char[][] args) { C c = new C(); I i = null; auto x = i == c; auto y = c == i; return 0; } --- the compiler turns it into: --- interface I { } class C: Object { } int main(char[][] args) { C c = new C; I i = null; int x = c.opEquals(cast(Object) i); int y = c.opEquals(cast(Object) i); return 0; } --- That's why it doesn't segfault. Debugging the code it turns out the logic is very simple, it's just applying operator overloading: (for the first comparison) "opEquals" is searched in "I". Since "opEquals" is not found in it, the compiler checks if "opEquals" is commutative. It is, so it searches "opEquals" in "C", finds it and does the rewrite. (more or less)
Sep 27 2009
prev sibling parent "Steven Schveighoffer" <schveiguy yahoo.com> writes:
On Sun, 27 Sep 2009 10:32:29 -0400, Andrei Alexandrescu  
<SeeWebsiteForEmail erdani.org> wrote:

 Frank Benoit wrote:
 Andrei Alexandrescu schrieb:
 Frank Benoit wrote:
 Andrei Alexandrescu schrieb:
 Consider two objects a and b with a of class type. Currently, the
 expression a == b is blindly rewritten as a.opEquals(b). I argue it
 should be rewritten into a call to an (imaginary/inlined) function
 equalObjects(a, b), with the following definition:

 bool equalObjects(T, U)(T a, U b) if (is(T == class))
 {
     static if (is(U == class))
     {
         if (b is null) return a is null;
         if (a is null) return b is null;
     }
     else
     {
         enforce(a !is null);
     }
     return a.opEquals(b);
 }

 This hoists the identity test outside the opEquals call and also  
 deals
 with null references. What do you think?


 Andrei


interface A {} class Widget : A {} void main() { auto a = cast(A) new Widget; A b = null; writeln(a == b); writeln(b == a); } To my surprise, the program printed false twice. If I replace A with Widget inside main, the program prints false then crashes with the mythical segfault :o). So how are interfaces compared? Andrei

opEquals. In DWT, I cast always first to Object. Java> if( intf1.equals(intf2) ){ D1.0> if( ((cast(Object)intf1).opEquals( cast(Object)intf2 )){

I think in D the cast is inserted automatically. Walter?

From the assembly, it appears that the compiler is comparing the reference values directly. Which is not what you want, you want the opEquals from Object. -Steve
Sep 27 2009
prev sibling parent "Robert Jacques" <sandford jhu.edu> writes:
On Sun, 27 Sep 2009 09:11:38 -0400, Andrei Alexandrescu  
<SeeWebsiteForEmail erdani.org> wrote:

 Robert Jacques wrote:
 On Sat, 26 Sep 2009 21:32:13 -0400, Andrei Alexandrescu  
 <SeeWebsiteForEmail erdani.org> wrote:

 Consider two objects a and b with a of class type. Currently, the  
 expression a == b is blindly rewritten as a.opEquals(b). I argue it  
 should be rewritten into a call to an (imaginary/inlined) function  
 equalObjects(a, b), with the following definition:

 bool equalObjects(T, U)(T a, U b) if (is(T == class))
 {
      static if (is(U == class))
      {
          if (b is null) return a is null;
          if (a is null) return b is null;
      }
      else
      {
          enforce(a !is null);
      }
      return a.opEquals(b);
 }

 This hoists the identity test outside the opEquals call and also deals  
 with null references. What do you think?


 Andrei

would also be a good idea: static if (is(U == class)) if(a is b || a is null || b is null) return a is b; else enforce(a !is null);

This code has an inefficiency, it seems, because it makes a bit more checks than necessary (e.g. checks a is b twice). Let's simplify: bool equalObjects(T, U)(T a, U b) if (is(T == class)) { static if (is(U == class)) { if (a is b) return true; if (b is null || a is null) return false; } else { enforce(a !is null); } return a.opEquals(b); } Andrei

Are the extra branch and return statement faster? Besides, I thought the optimizer would cache a is b: auto a_is_b = a is b; if (a_is_b || b is null || a is null) return a_is_b;
Sep 27 2009