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digitalmars.D.learn - strings and endianness

reply Johannes Pfau <spam example.com> writes:
I'm currently finishing std.uuid (see 
http://prowiki.org/wiki4d/wiki.cgi?ReviewQueue ). For name based hashes, a 
name string is passed to a hash function and I need to make sure that the 
resulting hash is the same on both little endian and big endian systems. So 
what's needed to convert a string to e.g little endian?

string --> as string is basically a byte array, is byte swapping even 
necessary?
wstring --> read as shorts and swap using nativeToLittleEndian()?
dstring --> read as ints and swap using nativeToLittleEndian()?

Also remotely related questions: AFAIK http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4122.txt 
doesn't exactly specify what encoding/byte order should be used for the UUID 
names? Does this mean different implementations are allowed to generate 
different UUIDs for the same input? (See chapter 'Algorithm for Creating a 
Name-Based UUID')

RFC4122 also says "put the name space ID in network byte order.", but the 
namespace is a ubyte[16], so how should this work?

Should name based UUIDs be different if they were created with the same 
name, but using different encodings(string vs wstring vs dstring)? That's 
the way boost.uuid implements it.
Jan 18 2012
next sibling parent reply "Jonathan M Davis" <jmdavisProg gmx.com> writes:
On Wednesday, January 18, 2012 20:40:33 Johannes Pfau wrote:
 I'm currently finishing std.uuid (see
 http://prowiki.org/wiki4d/wiki.cgi?ReviewQueue ). For name based hashes, a
 name string is passed to a hash function and I need to make sure that the
 resulting hash is the same on both little endian and big endian systems. So
 what's needed to convert a string to e.g little endian?
 
 string --> as string is basically a byte array, is byte swapping even
 necessary?
 wstring --> read as shorts and swap using nativeToLittleEndian()?
 dstring --> read as ints and swap using nativeToLittleEndian()?
 
 Also remotely related questions: AFAIK http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4122.txt
 doesn't exactly specify what encoding/byte order should be used for the UUID
 names? Does this mean different implementations are allowed to generate
 different UUIDs for the same input? (See chapter 'Algorithm for Creating a
 Name-Based UUID')
 
 RFC4122 also says "put the name space ID in network byte order.", but the
 namespace is a ubyte[16], so how should this work?
 
 Should name based UUIDs be different if they were created with the same
 name, but using different encodings(string vs wstring vs dstring)? That's
 the way boost.uuid implements it.

If RFC 4122 says that it's using big endian (and I'd be shocked if anything like that used little endian), then you need to convert to big endian. How that conversion is done though, depends on what each of the values represent. If they're 4 uints, then you'd need to sway each set of 4 bytes. If they're 8 ushorts, then you need to swap each set of 2 bytes. However, I belive that RFC 4122 is laid out like this uint ushort ushort ubyte ubyte ubyte ubyte ubyte ubyte ubyte ubyte So, you'd need to have the first 4 bytes in big endian as a uint, and the next 2 set of 2 bytes in big endian as ushorts, leaving the rest alone. As for strings. Remember that they're representing the data in the bytes, so I don't believe that it makes sense to try and convert wstrings or dstrings to a uuid directly. IIRC, the string must be 32 characters long (excepting the dashes) and that each of those characters represents the hex for a nibble in the UUID. So, if you have 58DF357E-8918-408D-8ABB-AFB70864ED9F 5 is the hex value for the first 4 bits in str[0], 8 is the hex value for the second 4 bits in str[0], D is the hex value for the first 4 bits in str[1], etc. So, there's no endian conversion going on at all. You just take the characters (regardless of the type of string) and convert each hex character to its corresponding integral value ('5' -> 5, '8' -> 8, 'D' -> 13, etc.) and set the corresponding nibble in the ubyte[16] for each. You're going to have to study RFC 4122 though, and make sure that you understand it properly. I'm going primarily off of how I've seen UUID's implemented before. All of this should be in the RFC. - Jonathan M Davis
Jan 18 2012
parent Johannes Pfau <spam example.com> writes:
Jonathan M Davis wrote:

 On Wednesday, January 18, 2012 20:40:33 Johannes Pfau wrote:
 I'm currently finishing std.uuid (see
 http://prowiki.org/wiki4d/wiki.cgi?ReviewQueue ). For name based hashes,
 a name string is passed to a hash function and I need to make sure that
 the resulting hash is the same on both little endian and big endian
 systems. So what's needed to convert a string to e.g little endian?
 
 string --> as string is basically a byte array, is byte swapping even
 necessary?
 wstring --> read as shorts and swap using nativeToLittleEndian()?
 dstring --> read as ints and swap using nativeToLittleEndian()?
 
 Also remotely related questions: AFAIK
 http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4122.txt doesn't exactly specify what
 encoding/byte order should be used for the UUID names? Does this mean
 different implementations are allowed to generate different UUIDs for the
 same input? (See chapter 'Algorithm for Creating a Name-Based UUID')
 
 RFC4122 also says "put the name space ID in network byte order.", but the
 namespace is a ubyte[16], so how should this work?
 
 Should name based UUIDs be different if they were created with the same
 name, but using different encodings(string vs wstring vs dstring)? That's
 the way boost.uuid implements it.

If RFC 4122 says that it's using big endian (and I'd be shocked if anything like that used little endian), then you need to convert to big endian.

Section 4.1.2. indeed says that it uses big endian. However, I should still be able to use a ubyte[16] representation and just make sure that those bytes are equal to the big endian representation. Thinking about this: If I construct a ubyte[16] from a uuid string byte by byte, the resulting ubyte[16] should already be the big-endian representation?
 How that conversion is done though, depends on what each of the
 values represent. If they're 4 uints, then you'd need to sway each set of
 4 bytes. If they're 8 ushorts, then you need to swap each set of 2 bytes.
 
 However, I belive that RFC 4122 is laid out like this
 
 uint
 ushort
 ushort
 ubyte
 ubyte
 ubyte
 ubyte
 ubyte
 ubyte
 ubyte
 ubyte

Right, I totally forgot that, as boost just treats an UUID as a ubyte[16]. But as long as I keep the data as ubyte[16] equal to the above layout in big endian, that should work as well.
 So, you'd need to have the first 4 bytes in big endian as a uint, and the
 next 2 set of 2 bytes in big endian as ushorts, leaving the rest alone.
 
 As for strings. Remember that they're representing the data in the bytes,
 so I don't believe that it makes sense to try and convert wstrings or
 dstrings to a uuid directly. IIRC, the string must be 32 characters long
 (excepting the dashes) and that each of those characters represents the
 hex for a nibble in the UUID. So, if you have
 
 58DF357E-8918-408D-8ABB-AFB70864ED9F
 
 5 is the hex value for the first 4 bits in str[0], 8 is the hex value for
 the second 4 bits in str[0], D is the hex value for the first 4 bits in
 str[1], etc. So, there's no endian conversion going on at all. You just
 take the characters (regardless of the type of string) and convert each
 hex character to its corresponding integral value ('5' -> 5, '8' -> 8, 'D'
 -> 13, etc.) and set the corresponding nibble in the ubyte[16] for each.

Sure, that's the string representation of an UUID and that's easy to get right. But you can also generate uuids from names (see section 4.3, UUID("dlang.org", dnsNamespace)). In that case the name is passed to a SHA1 or MD5 hash function, but it doesn't state which encoding or endianess is used for the name.
 
 You're going to have to study RFC 4122 though, and make sure that you
 understand it properly. I'm going primarily off of how I've seen UUID's
 implemented before. All of this should be in the RFC.

Don't worry, I already read RFC4122 completely and my implementation is basically a port from boost, so the code is likely to be not that bad. If you want to comment on the code, it's here: https://github.com/jpf91/phobos/blob/std.uuid/std/uuid.d Most things should be finished, except that I still have to fix the endianness stuff.
Jan 18 2012
prev sibling parent "Jonathan M Davis" <jmdavisProg gmx.com> writes:
On Wednesday, January 18, 2012 21:42:51 Johannes Pfau wrote:
 Jonathan M Davis wrote:
 Section 4.1.2. indeed says that it uses big endian. However, I should still
 be able to use a ubyte[16] representation and just make sure that those
 bytes are equal to the big endian representation. Thinking about this: If I
 construct a ubyte[16] from a uuid string byte by byte, the resulting
 ubyte[16] should already be the big-endian representation?

Yes.
 How that conversion is done though, depends on what each of the
 values represent. If they're 4 uints, then you'd need to sway each set
 of
 4 bytes. If they're 8 ushorts, then you need to swap each set of 2
 bytes.
 
 However, I belive that RFC 4122 is laid out like this
 
 uint
 ushort
 ushort
 ubyte
 ubyte
 ubyte
 ubyte
 ubyte
 ubyte
 ubyte
 ubyte

Right, I totally forgot that, as boost just treats an UUID as a ubyte[16]. But as long as I keep the data as ubyte[16] equal to the above layout in big endian, that should work as well.

Yes. I believe that the implementation (in C++) that we use where I work has a union between the various layouts. ubyte[16] should just be a mapping of the bytes such that you could cast each piece to the appropriate type and have it work (once you've dealt with endianness).
 If you want to comment on the code, it's here:
 https://github.com/jpf91/phobos/blob/std.uuid/std/uuid.d

I'll try and take a look at it at some point soon. Worst case, I can look at it when you try and get it into Phobos, which I assume that you're trying to do. - Jonathan M Davis
Jan 18 2012