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digitalmars.D.learn - Out of memory error (even when using destroy())

reply realhet <real_het hotmail.com> writes:
Hi,

I'm kinda new to the D language and I love it already. :D So far 
I haven't got any serious problems but this one seems like beyond 
me.

import std.stdio;
void main(){
     foreach(i; 0..2000){
         writeln(i);
         auto st = new ubyte[500_000_000];
         destroy(st); //<-this doesnt matter
     }
}

Compiled with DMD 2.074.0 Win32 it produces the following output:
0
1
2
core.exception.OutOfMemoryError src\core\exception.d(696): Memory 
allocation failed

It doesn't matter that I call destroy() or not. This is ok 
because as I learned: destroy only calls the destructor and marks 
the memory block as unused.

But I also learned that GC will start to collect when it run out 
of memory but in this time the following happens:
3x half GB of allocations and deallocations, and on the 4th the 
system runs out of the 2GB
  limit which is ok. At this point the GC already has 1.5GB of 
free memory but instead of using that, it returns a Memory Error. 
Why?

Note: This is not a problem when I use smaller blocks (like 50MB).
But I want to use large blocks, without making a slow wrapper 
that emulates a large block by using smaller GC allocated blocks.

Is there a solution to this?

Thank You!
May 25
next sibling parent reply Jonathan M Davis via Digitalmars-d-learn writes:
On Friday, May 26, 2017 06:31:49 realhet via Digitalmars-d-learn wrote:
 Hi,

 I'm kinda new to the D language and I love it already. :D So far
 I haven't got any serious problems but this one seems like beyond
 me.

 import std.stdio;
 void main(){
      foreach(i; 0..2000){
          writeln(i);
          auto st = new ubyte[500_000_000];
          destroy(st); //<-this doesnt matter
      }
 }

 Compiled with DMD 2.074.0 Win32 it produces the following output:
 0
 1
 2
 core.exception.OutOfMemoryError src\core\exception.d(696): Memory
 allocation failed

 It doesn't matter that I call destroy() or not. This is ok
 because as I learned: destroy only calls the destructor and marks
 the memory block as unused.

 But I also learned that GC will start to collect when it run out
 of memory but in this time the following happens:
 3x half GB of allocations and deallocations, and on the 4th the
 system runs out of the 2GB
   limit which is ok. At this point the GC already has 1.5GB of
 free memory but instead of using that, it returns a Memory Error.
 Why?

 Note: This is not a problem when I use smaller blocks (like 50MB).
 But I want to use large blocks, without making a slow wrapper
 that emulates a large block by using smaller GC allocated blocks.
It's likely an issue with false pointers. The GC thinks that the memory is referenced when it isn't, because some of the values match the pointers that would need to be freed.
 Is there a solution to this?
Use 64-bit. False pointers don't tend to be a problem with 64-bit, whereas they can be with 32-bit - especially when you're allocating large blocks of memory like that. - Jonathan M Davis
May 26
parent reply realhet <real_het hotmail.com> writes:
Thanks for the answer!

But hey, the GC knows that is should not search for any pointers 
in those large blocks.
And the buffer is full of 0-s at the start, so there can't be any 
'false pointers' in it. And I think the GC will not search in it 
either.

The only reference to the buffer is 'st' which will die shortly 
after it has been allocated.

64bit is not a solution because I need to produce a 32bit dll, 
and I also wanna use 32bit asm objs.
The total 2GB amount of memory is more than enough for the 
problem.
My program have to produce 300..500 MB of continuous data 
frequently. This works in MSVC32, but with D's GC it starts to 
eat memory and fails at the 4th iteration. Actually it never 
releases the previous blocks even I say so with destroy().

At this point I only can think of:
a) Work with the D allocator but emulate large blocks by 
virtually stitching small blocks together. (this is unnecessary 
complexity)
b) Allocating memory by Win32 api and not using D goodies anymore 
(also unnecessary complexity)

But these are ugly workarounds. :S

I also tried to allocate smaller blocks than the previous one, so 
it would easily fit to the prevouisly released space, and yet it 
keeps eating memory:

void alloc_dealloc(size_t siz){
     auto st = new ubyte[siz];
}

void main(){
     foreach(i; 0..4) alloc_dealloc(500_000_000 - 50_000_000*i);
}
May 26
next sibling parent rikki cattermole <rikki cattermole.co.nz> writes:
On 26/05/2017 9:15 AM, realhet wrote:
 Thanks for the answer!
 
 But hey, the GC knows that is should not search for any pointers in 
 those large blocks.
 And the buffer is full of 0-s at the start, so there can't be any 'false 
 pointers' in it. And I think the GC will not search in it either.
 
 The only reference to the buffer is 'st' which will die shortly after it 
 has been allocated.
 
 64bit is not a solution because I need to produce a 32bit dll, and I 
 also wanna use 32bit asm objs.
 The total 2GB amount of memory is more than enough for the problem.
 My program have to produce 300..500 MB of continuous data frequently. 
 This works in MSVC32, but with D's GC it starts to eat memory and fails 
 at the 4th iteration. Actually it never releases the previous blocks 
 even I say so with destroy().
 
 At this point I only can think of:
 a) Work with the D allocator but emulate large blocks by virtually 
 stitching small blocks together. (this is unnecessary complexity)
 b) Allocating memory by Win32 api and not using D goodies anymore (also 
 unnecessary complexity)
 
 But these are ugly workarounds. :S
 
 I also tried to allocate smaller blocks than the previous one, so it 
 would easily fit to the prevouisly released space, and yet it keeps 
 eating memory:
 
 void alloc_dealloc(size_t siz){
      auto st = new ubyte[siz];
 }
 
 void main(){
      foreach(i; 0..4) alloc_dealloc(500_000_000 - 50_000_000*i);
 }
If you have to use such large amounts frequently, you really have to go with buffers of memory that you control, not the GC. Memory allocation is always expensive, if you can prevent it all the better.
May 26
prev sibling next sibling parent Guillaume Piolat <first.last gmail.com> writes:
On Friday, 26 May 2017 at 08:15:49 UTC, realhet wrote:
 64bit is not a solution because I need to produce a 32bit dll, 
 and I also wanna use 32bit asm objs.
 The total 2GB amount of memory is more than enough for the 
 problem.
 My program have to produce 300..500 MB of continuous data 
 frequently. This works in MSVC32, but with D's GC it starts to 
 eat memory and fails at the 4th iteration. Actually it never 
 releases the previous blocks even I say so with destroy().
If you have issues with false pointers, you can use malloc instead of the GC to use much less memory.
May 26
prev sibling parent reply ag0aep6g <anonymous example.com> writes:
On 05/26/2017 10:15 AM, realhet wrote:
 But hey, the GC knows that is should not search for any pointers in 
 those large blocks.
 And the buffer is full of 0-s at the start, so there can't be any 'false 
 pointers' in it. And I think the GC will not search in it either.
The issue is not that the block contains a false pointer, but that there's a false pointer elsewhere that points into the block. The bigger the block, the more likely it is that something (e.g. an int on the stack) is mistaken for a pointer into it.
May 26
parent reply Mike B Johnson <Mikey Ikes.com> writes:
On Friday, 26 May 2017 at 14:05:34 UTC, ag0aep6g wrote:
 On 05/26/2017 10:15 AM, realhet wrote:
 But hey, the GC knows that is should not search for any 
 pointers in those large blocks.
 And the buffer is full of 0-s at the start, so there can't be 
 any 'false pointers' in it. And I think the GC will not search 
 in it either.
The issue is not that the block contains a false pointer, but that there's a false pointer elsewhere that points into the block. The bigger the block, the more likely it is that something (e.g. an int on the stack) is mistaken for a pointer into it.
Wow, if that is the case then the GC has some real issues. The GC should be informed about all pointers and an int is not a pointer.
May 26
next sibling parent Stanislav Blinov <stanislav.blinov gmail.com> writes:
On Friday, 26 May 2017 at 18:06:42 UTC, Mike B Johnson wrote:
 On Friday, 26 May 2017 at 14:05:34 UTC, ag0aep6g wrote:
 On 05/26/2017 10:15 AM, realhet wrote:
 But hey, the GC knows that is should not search for any 
 pointers in those large blocks.
 And the buffer is full of 0-s at the start, so there can't be 
 any 'false pointers' in it. And I think the GC will not 
 search in it either.
The issue is not that the block contains a false pointer, but that there's a false pointer elsewhere that points into the block. The bigger the block, the more likely it is that something (e.g. an int on the stack) is mistaken for a pointer into it.
Wow, if that is the case then the GC has some real issues. The GC should be informed about all pointers and an int is not a pointer.
What is a pointer if not an int? :) That is not an issue. The GC holds off releasing memory if there's even a suspicion that someone might be holding on to it. In most problems, ints are small. Pointers are always big, so there's not much overlap there. Accidents do happen occasionally, but it's better to have a system that is too cautious than one that ruins your data. Working with huge memory chunks isn't really a domain for GC though.
May 26
prev sibling parent reply "H. S. Teoh via Digitalmars-d-learn" <digitalmars-d-learn puremagic.com> writes:
On Fri, May 26, 2017 at 06:06:42PM +0000, Mike B Johnson via
Digitalmars-d-learn wrote:
 On Friday, 26 May 2017 at 14:05:34 UTC, ag0aep6g wrote:
 On 05/26/2017 10:15 AM, realhet wrote:
 But hey, the GC knows that is should not search for any pointers
 in those large blocks.  And the buffer is full of 0-s at the
 start, so there can't be any 'false pointers' in it. And I think
 the GC will not search in it either.
The issue is not that the block contains a false pointer, but that there's a false pointer elsewhere that points into the block. The bigger the block, the more likely it is that something (e.g. an int on the stack) is mistaken for a pointer into it.
Wow, if that is the case then the GC has some real issues. The GC should be informed about all pointers and an int is not a pointer.
Unfortunately, it can't, because (1) D interfaces with C code, and you don't have this kind of information from a C object file, and (2) you can turn a pointer into an int with a cast or a union in system code, and since the GC cannot assume safe for all code, it needs to be conservative and assume any int-like data could potentially be a pointer. You could improve GC performance by giving it type info from safe code so that it skips over blocks that *definitely* have no pointers (it already does this to some extent, e.g., data in an int[] will never be scanned for pointers because the GC knows it can't contain any). But you can't make the GC fully non-conservative because it may crash the program when it wrongly assumes a memory block is dead when it's actually still live. All it takes is one pointer on the stack that's wrongly assumed to be just int, and you're screwed. T -- Dogs have owners ... cats have staff. -- Krista Casada
May 26
parent reply Mike B Johnson <Mikey Ikes.com> writes:
On Friday, 26 May 2017 at 18:19:48 UTC, H. S. Teoh wrote:
 On Fri, May 26, 2017 at 06:06:42PM +0000, Mike B Johnson via 
 Digitalmars-d-learn wrote:
 On Friday, 26 May 2017 at 14:05:34 UTC, ag0aep6g wrote:
 On 05/26/2017 10:15 AM, realhet wrote:
 But hey, the GC knows that is should not search for any 
 pointers in those large blocks.  And the buffer is full of 
 0-s at the start, so there can't be any 'false pointers' 
 in it. And I think the GC will not search in it either.
The issue is not that the block contains a false pointer, but that there's a false pointer elsewhere that points into the block. The bigger the block, the more likely it is that something (e.g. an int on the stack) is mistaken for a pointer into it.
Wow, if that is the case then the GC has some real issues. The GC should be informed about all pointers and an int is not a pointer.
Unfortunately, it can't, because (1) D interfaces with C code, and you don't have this kind of information from a C object file, and (2) you can turn a pointer into an int with a cast or a union in system code, and since the GC cannot assume safe for all code, it needs to be conservative and assume any int-like data could potentially be a pointer. You could improve GC performance by giving it type info from safe code so that it skips over blocks that *definitely* have no pointers (it already does this to some extent, e.g., data in an int[] will never be scanned for pointers because the GC knows it can't contain any). But you can't make the GC fully non-conservative because it may crash the program when it wrongly assumes a memory block is dead when it's actually still live. All it takes is one pointer on the stack that's wrongly assumed to be just int, and you're screwed.
And what if one isn't interfacing to C? All pointers should be known. You can't access memory by and int or any other non-pointer type! Hence, when pointers are created or ints are cast to pointers, the GC should be informed and then handle them appropriately(then, instead of scanning a 100MB block of memory for "pointers" it should scan the list of possible pointers(which will generally be much much lower). Therefor, in a true D program(no outsourcing) with no pointers used, the GC should never have to scan anything. It seems the GC can be smarter than it is instead of just making blanket assumptions about the entire program(which rarely hold), which is generally always a poor choice when it comes to performance... In fact, When interfacing with C or other programs, memory could be partitioned and any memory that may escape D is treated differently than the memory used only by D code. After all, if we truly want to be safe, why not scan the entire memory of the system? Who knows, some pointer externally might be peeping in on our hello world program.
May 27
next sibling parent Stanislav Blinov <stanislav.blinov gmail.com> writes:
On Saturday, 27 May 2017 at 17:57:03 UTC, Mike B Johnson wrote:

 And what if one isn't interfacing to C? All pointers should be 
 known. You can't access memory by and int or any other 
 non-pointer type! Hence, when pointers are created or ints are 
 cast to pointers, the GC should be informed and then handle 
 them appropriately
Eh? So *every* cast from and to a pointer should become a call into the runtime, poking the GC? Or rather, every variable declaration should somehow be made magically known to the GC without any runtime cost?
 (then, instead of scanning a 100MB block of memory for 
 "pointers" it should scan the list of possible pointers(which 
 will generally be much much lower).
That's precisely what it does, it scans the possible suspects, nothing more. That is, the stack (it has no idea what's there, it's just a block of untyped memory), memory it itself allocated *only if* it needs to (e.g. you allocated a typed array, and the type has pointers), memory you've specifically asked it to scan. It won't scan that block of 500k ints the OP allocated, unless told to do so. It would scan it if it was a void[] block though.
 Therefor, in a true D program(no outsourcing) with no pointers 
 used, the GC should never have to scan anything.
No pointers used? No arrays, no strings, no delegates?.. That's a rather limited program. But thing is, you're right, in such a program the GC will indeed never have to scan anything. If you never allocate, GC collection never occurs either.
 It seems the GC can be smarter than it is instead of just 
 making blanket assumptions about the entire program(which 
 rarely hold), which is generally always a poor choice when it 
 comes to performance...
Unnecessary interaction with the GC, e.g. informing it about every cast, is a poor choice for performance.
 After all, if we truly want to be safe, why not scan the entire 
 memory of the system? Who knows, some pointer externally might 
 be peeping in on our hello world program.
What?
May 27
prev sibling parent nkm1 <t4nk074 openmailbox.org> writes:
On Saturday, 27 May 2017 at 17:57:03 UTC, Mike B Johnson wrote:

 And what if one isn't interfacing to C? All pointers should be 
 known.
Apparently some people are (were?) working on semi-precise GC: https://github.com/dlang/druntime/pull/1603 That still scans the stack conservatively, though.
 Therefor, in a true D program(no outsourcing) with no pointers 
 used, the GC should never have to scan anything.
All realistic programs (in any language) use a lot of pointers - for example, all slices in D have embedded pointers (slice.ptr), references are pointers, classes are references, etc.
 It seems the GC can be smarter than it is instead of just 
 making blanket assumptions about the entire program(which 
 rarely hold), which is generally always a poor choice when it 
 comes to performance...
If you only have compile time information, making blanket assumptions is inevitable - after all, compiler can't understand how a nontrivial program actually works. The alternative is doing more work at runtime (marking pointers that changed since previous collection, etc), which is also not good for performance.
 Who knows, some pointer externally might be peeping in on our 
 hello world program.
Of course, there is a pointer :) void main() { import std.stdio; writeln("hello world".ptr); }
May 27
prev sibling parent reply Jordan Wilson <wilsonjord gmail.com> writes:
On Friday, 26 May 2017 at 06:31:49 UTC, realhet wrote:
 Hi,

 I'm kinda new to the D language and I love it already. :D So 
 far I haven't got any serious problems but this one seems like 
 beyond me.

 import std.stdio;
 void main(){
     foreach(i; 0..2000){
         writeln(i);
         auto st = new ubyte[500_000_000];
         destroy(st); //<-this doesnt matter
     }
 }

 Compiled with DMD 2.074.0 Win32 it produces the following 
 output:
 0
 1
 2
 core.exception.OutOfMemoryError src\core\exception.d(696): 
 Memory allocation failed

 It doesn't matter that I call destroy() or not. This is ok 
 because as I learned: destroy only calls the destructor and 
 marks the memory block as unused.

 But I also learned that GC will start to collect when it run 
 out of memory but in this time the following happens:
 3x half GB of allocations and deallocations, and on the 4th the 
 system runs out of the 2GB
  limit which is ok. At this point the GC already has 1.5GB of 
 free memory but instead of using that, it returns a Memory 
 Error. Why?

 Note: This is not a problem when I use smaller blocks (like 
 50MB).
 But I want to use large blocks, without making a slow wrapper 
 that emulates a large block by using smaller GC allocated 
 blocks.

 Is there a solution to this?

 Thank You!
I believe the general solution would be to limit allocation within loops (given the issue Johnathan mentioned). This I think achieves the spirit of your code, but without the memory exception: ubyte[] st; foreach(i; 0..2000){ writeln(i); st.length=500_000_000; // auto = new ubyte[500_000_000]; st.length=0; // destory(st) st.assumeSafeAppend; // prevent allocation by assuming it's ok to overrwrite what's currently in st }
May 26
parent realhet <real_het hotmail.com> writes:
 Jordan Wilson wrote:
 This I think achieves the spirit of your code, but without the 
 memory exception:
     ubyte[] st;
     foreach(i; 0..2000){
         writeln(i);
         st.length=500_000_000; // auto = new ubyte[500_000_000];
         st.length=0; // destory(st)
         st.assumeSafeAppend;
 // prevent allocation by assuming it's ok to overrwrite what's 
 currently in st
     }
Yea, that's the perfect solution. It uses exactly the amount of memory that is required and still I'm using D things only. The only difference is that I need only one variable outside of the loop, but it's well worth it because I only need one large buffer at a time. Also refreshed my knowledge about assumeSafeAppend() which is now clear to me, thanks to You. Using this information I'll be able to do a BigArray class that will hold large amount of data without worrying that the program uses 3x more memory than needed :D Thanks for everyone, Such a helping community you have here!
May 26