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digitalmars.D.learn - Calls to struct methods and immutable

reply Joseph Rushton Wakeling <joseph.wakeling webdrake.net> writes:
The following code refuses to compile:

///////////////////////////////////////////////////////
import std.math;

struct Foo
{
       int a;
       int b;

       this(int a, int b)
       {
             this.a = a;
             this.b = b;
       }

       void check()
       {
             real c = (a ^^ 2 + b ^^ 2) ^^ 0.5;
             assert(c < 10);
       }
}


void main()
{
       auto foo = cast(immutable) Foo(3, 4);
       foo.check();
}
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////

... producing an error message: immustruct.d(25): Error: function 
immustruct.Foo.check () is not callable using argument types () immutable

The reason seems pretty evident -- making the instance immutable means that the 
temporary internal variable c in check() can't be (over)written.  At the same 
time, this feels a bit daft -- you're talking about a transient value that is 
never seen outside the function scope.

Is there any way of getting round this constraint so such temporary, transient 
variables are still permitted within methods of an immutable instance?

As a workaround, if I write a function external to Foo, e.g.

void check2(Foo foo)
{
       real c = (foo.a ^^ 2 + foo.b ^^ 2) ^^ 0.5;
       assert(c < 10);
}

... then calling foo.check2() runs without problem.  I'm just curious as to 
whether it can be done within a struct method too.
Nov 15 2012
next sibling parent "Dan" <dbdavidson yahoo.com> writes:
On Thursday, 15 November 2012 at 13:54:10 UTC, Joseph Rushton 
Wakeling wrote:

Make 'void check()' be 'void check() const'
Thanks
Dan
 The following code refuses to compile:

 ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////
 import std.math;

 struct Foo
 {
       int a;
       int b;

       this(int a, int b)
       {
             this.a = a;
             this.b = b;
       }

       void check()
       {
             real c = (a ^^ 2 + b ^^ 2) ^^ 0.5;
             assert(c < 10);
       }
 }


 void main()
 {
       auto foo = cast(immutable) Foo(3, 4);
       foo.check();
 }
 ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////

 ... producing an error message: immustruct.d(25): Error: 
 function immustruct.Foo.check () is not callable using argument 
 types () immutable

 The reason seems pretty evident -- making the instance 
 immutable means that the temporary internal variable c in 
 check() can't be (over)written.  At the same time, this feels a 
 bit daft -- you're talking about a transient value that is 
 never seen outside the function scope.

 Is there any way of getting round this constraint so such 
 temporary, transient variables are still permitted within 
 methods of an immutable instance?

 As a workaround, if I write a function external to Foo, e.g.

 void check2(Foo foo)
 {
       real c = (foo.a ^^ 2 + foo.b ^^ 2) ^^ 0.5;
       assert(c < 10);
 }

 ... then calling foo.check2() runs without problem.  I'm just 
 curious as to whether it can be done within a struct method too.

Nov 15 2012
prev sibling next sibling parent reply "bearophile" <bearophileHUGS lycos.com> writes:
Joseph Rushton Wakeling:

       auto foo = cast(immutable) Foo(3, 4);

Strive to write D code as much cast-free as possible, because they are dangerous.
 The reason seems pretty evident -- making the instance 
 immutable means that the temporary internal variable c in 
 check() can't be (over)written.

You are wrong. A version of your code: import std.math; struct Foo { int a, b; /* this(int a, int b) { this.a = a; this.b = b; } */ void check() const pure nothrow { immutable real p = a ^^ 2 + b ^^ 2; assert(sqrt(p) < 10); } } void main() { auto foo = immutable(Foo)(3, 4); // immutable foo = Foo(3, 4); // simpler alternative foo.check(); } Bye, bearophile
Nov 15 2012
parent reply =?UTF-8?B?QWxpIMOHZWhyZWxp?= <acehreli yahoo.com> writes:
On 11/15/2012 06:24 AM, Joseph Rushton Wakeling wrote:

 The practical situation I'm dealing with is that the a struct gets built
 inside a function, based on data read from files. Once the data has been
 written to the struct, it should never be changed again.

If you don't want the callers be able to change, then return immutable(Foo). Otherwise, if the caller wants to use the object as immutable, then the user should declare immutable: a) Don't allow users to modify: immutable(Foo) makeFoo() { Foo foo; foreach (i; 0..10) foo.add( /* new data point */ ); return foo; } b) The user wants to play safe: auto makeFoo() { Foo foo; foreach (i; 0..10) foo.add( /* new data point */ ); return foo; } void main() { immutable foo = makeFoo(); } Both of those compile with dmd 2.060.
 I'm deluging the list with a
 bunch of questions

Please continue to do so. That is what this forum is for. Your questions help us all. :) Ali
Nov 15 2012
parent reply =?UTF-8?B?QWxpIMOHZWhyZWxp?= <acehreli yahoo.com> writes:
On 11/15/2012 10:26 AM, Joseph Rushton Wakeling wrote:
 On 11/15/2012 06:40 PM, Ali Çehreli wrote:
 b) The user wants to play safe:

 auto makeFoo()
 {
 Foo foo;
 foreach (i; 0..10)
 foo.add( /* new data point */ );
 return foo;
 }

 void main()
 {
 immutable foo = makeFoo();
 }

 Both of those compile with dmd 2.060.

Really? I'm using from-GitHub dmd, and with the above example I get a "cannot implicitly convert expression to immutable" error, e.g.: Error: cannot implicitly convert expression (testSets(nfRaw,0.1L)) of type TestData!(ulong,ulong) to immutable(TestData!(ulong,ulong))

The following program compiles without any errors with dmd 2.060: struct Foo(T0, T1) { T0 t0; T1 t1; } auto testSets(T0, T1)(T0 t0, T1 t1) { auto foo = Foo!(T0, T1)(t0, t1); return foo; } void main() { ulong nfRaw; immutable foo = testSets(nfRaw,0.1L); } So far it makes sense to me: There shouldn't be any problem with making a copy of a value type and marking that copy as immutable. Unless there exists a member that would make this unsafe. Let's add an int[] member to Foo: struct Foo(T0, T1) { T0 t0; T1 t1; int[] a; } auto testSets(T0, T1)(T0 t0, T1 t1, int[] a) { auto foo = Foo!(T0, T1)(t0, t1, a); return foo; } void main() { ulong nfRaw; int[] a = [ 42 ]; immutable foo = testSets(nfRaw, 0.1L, a); // <-- compilation error assert(foo.a[0] == 42); a[0] = 43; assert(foo.a[1] == 43); // <-- if compiled, this would be a bug } Do you have a reference type in your struct? Ali
Nov 15 2012
next sibling parent =?UTF-8?B?QWxpIMOHZWhyZWxp?= <acehreli yahoo.com> writes:
On 11/15/2012 10:48 AM, Ali Çehreli wrote:

 assert(foo.a[0] == 42);
 a[0] = 43;
 assert(foo.a[1] == 43); // <-- if compiled, this would be a bug

Of course I meant foo.a[0] on the last line above as well. Ali
Nov 15 2012
prev sibling parent reply =?UTF-8?B?QWxpIMOHZWhyZWxp?= <acehreli yahoo.com> writes:
On 11/15/2012 07:43 PM, Kenji Hara wrote:

 This code works with dmd git head (and might work with dmd 2.060).

Yes, it works with dmd 2.060 as well.
 immutable(Foo) makeFoo() pure

I would like to repeate an earlier question: Does makeFoo() want that the returned object be immutable? If so, the previous signature is required. However, if makeFoo() does not care, then it would be better if it returned a mutable Foo: Foo makeFoo() pure In that case the callers could decide whether they wanted to have the returned object as mutable or immutable: immutable ifoo = makeFoo(); auto mfoo = makeFoo(); The above works because makeFoo() is pure. If makeFoo() were not pure, and in general, Foo may need to provide an .idup member function: import std.conv; import std.exception; struct Foo { int a, b; string[string] aa; int[] slice; immutable(Foo) idup() pure const property { auto copy = to!(string[string])(aa); immutable iaa = assumeUnique(copy); return immutable(Foo)(a, b, iaa, slice.idup); } } void main() { auto foo = Foo(42, 43, [ "a" : "hello", "b" : "world" ], [ 42 ]); immutable ifoo = foo.idup; } Ali
Nov 15 2012
parent =?UTF-8?B?QWxpIMOHZWhyZWxp?= <acehreli yahoo.com> writes:
On 11/27/2012 06:05 AM, Joseph Rushton Wakeling wrote:
 On 11/27/2012 01:16 PM, Joseph Rushton Wakeling wrote:
 immutable(Node) idup() pure const  property
 {
 auto linkCopy = to!(Link[])(links);
 immutable ilinks = assumeUnique(linkCopy);
 return immutable(Node)(id, ilinks);
 }

Actually I'm being overly complicated here as with dynamic arrays I can simply do, immutable(Node) idup() pure const property { return immutable(Node)(id, links.idup); } ... so the real issue here seems to be that there's no canonical way (that I can find) to idup an _associative_ array.

I've forced it pretty hard: :D immutable(Network) idup() pure const property { Node[uint] nodesCopy; foreach (key, node; nodes) { immutable(Node) nodeCopy = node.idup; nodesCopy[key] = cast(Node)nodeCopy; } immutable imnodes = assumeUnique(nodesCopy); return immutable(Network)(imnodes); } I hope it is safe. :p Ali
Nov 29 2012
prev sibling next sibling parent "bearophile" <bearophileHUGS lycos.com> writes:
 /*
      this(int a, int b) {
          this.a = a;
          this.b = b;
      }
 */

      void check() const pure nothrow {
          immutable real p = a ^^ 2 + b ^^ 2;
          assert(sqrt(p) < 10);
      }
 }

If you keep the constructor, then it's probably better to replace check() with an invariant(). Bye, bearophile
Nov 15 2012
prev sibling next sibling parent Joseph Rushton Wakeling <joseph.wakeling webdrake.net> writes:
On 11/15/2012 03:06 PM, bearophile wrote:
       void check() const pure nothrow {
           immutable real p = a ^^ 2 + b ^^ 2;
           assert(sqrt(p) < 10);
       }

Is it appropriate to have 'nothrow' given that the assert could fail?
 Strive to write D code as much cast-free as possible, because
 they are dangerous.

The practical situation I'm dealing with is that the a struct gets built inside a function, based on data read from files. Once the data has been written to the struct, it should never be changed again. i.e. struct Foo { // contains a few different arrays of data void add( /* adds new data points to collection */) { ... } } auto makeFoo() { Foo foo; foreach( /* lots of data */ ) foo.add( /* new data point */ ); return foo; } So, in practice, it seems like that function should cast it to immutable as it returns -- and this would be safe, no? By the way, I should add -- I recognize I'm deluging the list with a bunch of questions in these last days, and I'm very grateful for the amount of advice you and others have been giving. I hope it's not becoming too overwhelming or annoying!
Nov 15 2012
prev sibling next sibling parent "bearophile" <bearophileHUGS lycos.com> writes:
Joseph Rushton Wakeling:

 Is it appropriate to have 'nothrow' given that the assert could 
 fail?

Failing asserts produce errors, not exceptions. "nothrow" only deals with exceptions. And thankfully in this case your D code doesn't need to be "appropriate", because D refuses nothrow if the function is able to throw.
 So, in practice, it seems like that function should cast it to 
 immutable as it returns -- and this would be safe, no?

Try to avoid casts as much as possible in D, they are a great source for bugs. Take a look at assumeUnique, or better make your makeFoo pure so its output is assignable to immutable.
 By the way, I should add -- I recognize I'm deluging the list 
 with a bunch of questions in these last days, and I'm very 
 grateful for the amount of advice you and others have been 
 giving.  I hope it's not becoming too overwhelming or annoying!

For me it's not a problem: when I don't have time to answer I don't answer :-) Bye, bearophile
Nov 15 2012
prev sibling next sibling parent Joseph Rushton Wakeling <joseph.wakeling webdrake.net> writes:
On 11/15/2012 03:36 PM, bearophile wrote:
 Try to avoid casts as much as possible in D, they are a great source for bugs.
 Take a look at assumeUnique, or better make your makeFoo pure so its output is
 assignable to immutable.

Thanks for the pointer to assumeUnique -- it will be useful, although AFAICS it applies only to arrays, not to structs or other entities, no? Alas, pure isn't an option, because the makeFoo involves some random procedures :-(
Nov 15 2012
prev sibling next sibling parent "bearophile" <bearophileHUGS lycos.com> writes:
Joseph Rushton Wakeling:

 Alas, pure isn't an option, because the makeFoo involves some 
 random procedures :-(

http://d.puremagic.com/issues/show_bug.cgi?id=5249 :-) (But I have to remove its assignment to Andrei, I think I did that by mistake, I didn't know how such things work). Bye, bearophile
Nov 15 2012
prev sibling next sibling parent Joseph Rushton Wakeling <joseph.wakeling webdrake.net> writes:
On 11/15/2012 06:40 PM, Ali Çehreli wrote:
 b) The user wants to play safe:

 auto makeFoo()
 {
      Foo foo;
      foreach (i; 0..10)
          foo.add( /* new data point */ );
      return foo;
 }

 void main()
 {
      immutable foo = makeFoo();
 }

 Both of those compile with dmd 2.060.

Really? I'm using from-GitHub dmd, and with the above example I get a "cannot implicitly convert expression to immutable" error, e.g.: Error: cannot implicitly convert expression (testSets(nfRaw,0.1L)) of type TestData!(ulong,ulong) to immutable(TestData!(ulong,ulong))
Nov 15 2012
prev sibling next sibling parent Joseph Rushton Wakeling <joseph.wakeling webdrake.net> writes:
On 11/15/2012 07:48 PM, Ali Çehreli wrote:
 Do you have a reference type in your struct?

Yes -- there are associative arrays, and some of those contain dynamic arrays.
Nov 15 2012
prev sibling next sibling parent Joseph Rushton Wakeling <joseph.wakeling webdrake.net> writes:
On 11/15/2012 07:48 PM, Ali Çehreli wrote:
 Do you have a reference type in your struct?

Assuming I do, what can I do to ensure the struct instance is immutable? Is cast(immutable) now the only option?
Nov 15 2012
prev sibling next sibling parent "Kenji Hara" <k.hara.pg gmail.com> writes:
On Thursday, 15 November 2012 at 23:40:16 UTC, Joseph Rushton 
Wakeling wrote:
 On 11/15/2012 07:48 PM, Ali Çehreli wrote:
 Do you have a reference type in your struct?

Assuming I do, what can I do to ensure the struct instance is immutable? Is cast(immutable) now the only option?

This code works with dmd git head (and might work with dmd 2.060). struct Foo { int a, b; string[string] aa; } immutable(Foo) makeFoo() pure { Foo foo; foo.aa["a"] = "hello"; foo.aa["b"] = "world"; return foo; // compiler allows this implicit casting from Foo to immutable(Foo), // because compiler can guarantee the instance 'foo' doesn't have // mutable indirections to any global data so makeFoo is a pure function. } void main() { immutable ifoo = makeFoo(); } Kenji Hara
Nov 15 2012
prev sibling next sibling parent Joseph Rushton Wakeling <joseph.wakeling webdrake.net> writes:
On 11/16/2012 05:51 AM, Ali Çehreli wrote:
 However, if makeFoo() does not care, then it would be better if it returned a
 mutable Foo:

 Foo makeFoo() pure

 In that case the callers could decide whether they wanted to have the returned
 object as mutable or immutable:

      immutable ifoo = makeFoo();
      auto mfoo = makeFoo();

 The above works because makeFoo() is pure.

Unfortunately in general that's a no-go as some of the generation functions involve reading from outside files, and some involve random number generation (though I'm curious to see the result of bearophile's pure RNG).
 If makeFoo() were not pure, and in general, Foo may need to provide an .idup
 member function:

 import std.conv;
 import std.exception;

 struct Foo
 {
      int a, b;
      string[string] aa;
      int[] slice;

      immutable(Foo) idup() pure const  property
      {
          auto copy = to!(string[string])(aa);
          immutable iaa = assumeUnique(copy);
          return immutable(Foo)(a, b, iaa, slice.idup);
      }
 }

I'll have a look into this. The trouble is that it's not such a simple structure: it's actually more like, struct Data { Node[size_t] nodes; } struct Node { size_t id; size_t[]; } ... is it possible to just do auto copy = to!(Node[size_t])(nodes); immutable inodes = assumeUnique(copy); or would I have to go further recursively into Node? (Or, alternatively, will assumeUnique pick up on any idup method I define for Node?)
Nov 16 2012
prev sibling next sibling parent Joseph Rushton Wakeling <joseph.wakeling webdrake.net> writes:
On 11/16/2012 12:55 PM, Joseph Rushton Wakeling wrote:
 The trouble is that it's not such a simple  structure: it's actually more like,

I should add that I'm not trying to be coy about revealing my code; I'm happy to do so, but as it's a rather long file I don't want to oblige anyone to have to read through it.
Nov 16 2012
prev sibling next sibling parent Joseph Rushton Wakeling <joseph.wakeling webdrake.net> writes:
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8; format=flowed
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit

On 11/16/2012 05:51 AM, Ali Çehreli wrote:
 If makeFoo() were not pure, and in general, Foo may need to provide an .idup
 member function:

I've been trying this out and ran into some problems with the to!()() conversion. Here's a concrete example. Suppose I have a couple of structs which are designed respectively to represent nodes in a network, and a collection of those nodes: /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// alias Tuple!(uint, "id") Link; struct Node { uint id; Link[] links; void addLink(uint l) { links ~= Link(l); } immutable(Node) idup() pure const property { auto linkCopy = to!(Link[])(links); immutable ilinks = assumeUnique(linkCopy); return immutable(Node)(id, ilinks); } } struct Network { Node[uint] nodes; void add(uint i, uint j) { if((i in nodes) is null) nodes[i] = Node(i); if((j in nodes) is null) nodes[j] = Node(j); nodes[i].addLink(j); nodes[j].addLink(i); } void print() { foreach(k; nodes.keys) { write("[", k, "]"); foreach(l; nodes[k].links) write(" ", l.id); writeln(); } writeln(); } } /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Now, the idup() command for Node works just fine: auto n1 = Node(1); n1.addLink(5); n1.addLink(6); writeln(n1.links); immutable n2 = n1.idup; writeln(n2.links); ... but if I try to introduce a similar function for the Network struct, immutable(Network) idup() pure const property { auto nodeCopy = to!(Node[uint])(nodes); immutable imnodes = assumeUnique(nodeCopy); return immutable(Network)(imnodes); } it fails to compile with an error relating to the to!(Node[uint])() conversion: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- /opt/dmd/include/d2/std/conv.d(269): Error: template std.conv.toImpl does not match any function template declaration. Candidates are: /opt/dmd/include/d2/std/conv.d(325): std.conv.toImpl(T, S)(S value) if (isImplicitlyConvertible!(S, T) && !isEnumStrToStr!(S, T) && !isNullToStr!(S, T)) /opt/dmd/include/d2/std/conv.d(431): std.conv.toImpl(T, S)(ref S s) if (isRawStaticArray!(S)) /opt/dmd/include/d2/std/conv.d(445): std.conv.toImpl(T, S)(S value) if (is(S : Object) && !is(T : Object) && !isSomeString!(T) && hasMember!(S, "to") && is(typeof(S.init.to!(T)()) : T)) /opt/dmd/include/d2/std/conv.d(466): std.conv.toImpl(T, S)(S value) if (is(typeof(S.init.opCast!(T)()) : T) && !(isSomeString!(T) && !is(T == enum) && !isAggregateType!(T))) /opt/dmd/include/d2/std/conv.d(497): std.conv.toImpl(T, S)(S value) if (!isImplicitlyConvertible!(S, T) && is(T == struct) && is(typeof(T(value)))) /opt/dmd/include/d2/std/conv.d(269): ... (16 more, -v to show) ... /opt/dmd/include/d2/std/conv.d(325): Error: template std.conv.toImpl cannot deduce template function from argument types !(Node)(const(Node)) /opt/dmd/include/d2/std/conv.d(269): Error: template instance toImpl!(Node) errors instantiating template /opt/dmd/include/d2/std/conv.d(1387): Error: template instance std.conv.to!(Node).to!(const(Node)) error instantiating /opt/dmd/include/d2/std/conv.d(269): instantiated from here: toImpl!(Node[uint], const(Node[uint])) inodes.d(41): instantiated from here: to!(const(Node[uint])) /opt/dmd/include/d2/std/conv.d(269): Error: template instance std.conv.toImpl!(Node[uint], const(Node[uint])) error instantiating inodes.d(41): instantiated from here: to!(const(Node[uint])) inodes.d(41): Error: template instance std.conv.to!(Node[uint]).to!(const(Node[uint])) error instantiating --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I'm guessing this means I have to define a custom opCast (for Node, I guess) but the documentation on how to do so seems sparse -- can you advise? Full code example attached. Thanks & best wishes, -- Joe
Nov 27 2012
prev sibling next sibling parent Joseph Rushton Wakeling <joseph.wakeling webdrake.net> writes:
On 11/27/2012 01:16 PM, Joseph Rushton Wakeling wrote:
        immutable(Node) idup() pure const  property
        {
              auto linkCopy = to!(Link[])(links);
              immutable ilinks = assumeUnique(linkCopy);
              return immutable(Node)(id, ilinks);
        }

Actually I'm being overly complicated here as with dynamic arrays I can simply do, immutable(Node) idup() pure const property { return immutable(Node)(id, links.idup); } ... so the real issue here seems to be that there's no canonical way (that I can find) to idup an _associative_ array.
Nov 27 2012
prev sibling next sibling parent "Dan" <dbdavidson yahoo.com> writes:
On Tuesday, 27 November 2012 at 14:05:37 UTC, Joseph Rushton 
Wakeling wrote:
 On 11/27/2012 01:16 PM, Joseph Rushton Wakeling wrote:
 ... so the real issue here seems to be that there's no 
 canonical way (that I can find) to idup an _associative_ array.

I'm using a custom gdup that recursively copies fields and requires no support from nested structs. If a dup is provided by a struct it will be called. No guarantees, but have a look. https://github.com/patefacio/d-help/blob/master/d-help/opmix/mix.d The following runs: -------------------------- import std.stdio; import std.typecons; import std.conv; import std.exception; import opmix.mix; alias Tuple!(uint, "id") Link; struct Node { uint id; Link[] links; void addLink(uint l) { links ~= Link(l); } immutable(Node) idup() pure const property { auto linkCopy = to!(Link[])(links); immutable ilinks = assumeUnique(linkCopy); return immutable(Node)(id, ilinks); } } struct Network { Node[uint] nodes; immutable(Network) idup() pure const property { auto nodeCopy = nodes.gdup; immutable imnodes = assumeUnique(nodeCopy); return immutable(Network)(imnodes); } void add(uint i, uint j) { if((i in nodes) is null) nodes[i] = Node(i); if((j in nodes) is null) nodes[j] = Node(j); nodes[i].addLink(j); nodes[j].addLink(i); } void print() { foreach(k; nodes.keys) { write("[", k, "]"); foreach(l; nodes[k].links) write(" ", l.id); writeln(); } writeln(); } } unittest { auto n1 = Node(1); n1.addLink(5); n1.addLink(6); writeln(n1.links); immutable n2 = n1.idup; writeln(n2.links); Network net1; net1.add(1,2); immutable Network net2 = net1.idup; writeln(net1); writeln(net2); }
Nov 27 2012
prev sibling next sibling parent Joseph Rushton Wakeling <joseph.wakeling webdrake.net> writes:
On 11/27/2012 05:31 PM, Dan wrote:
 I'm using a custom gdup that recursively copies fields and requires no support
 from nested structs. If a dup is provided by a struct it will be called. No
 guarantees, but have a look.
 https://github.com/patefacio/d-help/blob/master/d-help/opmix/mix.d

Thanks for that -- I'll look through it carefully. My one caveat here is that in general I'm reluctant to rely too strongly on 3rd-party libraries at this stage of D's development. That's particularly true where stuff like this is concerned -- which might well be best placed in the standard library itself. Generic, broadly-applicable .dup and .idup commands would seem to be something that should be available in Phobos ... ... anyway, back to the specifics -- even though I could use opmix, I'd still really like to understand for myself how to solve the problems described in my previous emails -- in particular, how to effectively idup my struct containing the Node[uint] associative array _without_ relying on some external library. My feeling is I'll learn more about D this way ... :-)
Nov 29 2012
prev sibling next sibling parent "Dan" <dbdavidson yahoo.com> writes:
On Thursday, 29 November 2012 at 16:28:42 UTC, Joseph Rushton 
Wakeling wrote:
 My one caveat here is that in general I'm reluctant to rely too 
 strongly on 3rd-party libraries at this stage of D's 
 development.  That's particularly true where stuff like this is 
 concerned -- which might well be best placed in the standard 
 library itself.  Generic, broadly-applicable .dup and .idup 
 commands would seem to be something that should be available in 
 Phobos ...

 ... anyway, back to the specifics -- even though I could use 
 opmix, I'd still really like to understand for myself how to 
 solve the problems described in my previous emails -- in 
 particular, how to effectively idup my struct containing the 
 Node[uint] associative array _without_ relying on some external 
 library.  My feeling is I'll learn more about D this way ... :-)

I feel the same way - as I said there are no guarantees, I'm using it but it may not cover the majority of cases and it may be obviated by whatever solution Walter is cooking up for copy construction and copying of const reference types. Doing it yourself is the best way to learn. What I really like about D is that you can have what seems like a crippling issue (no way to copy const objects) and use features like mixin compile time recursion to have a potentially nice general solution. I also think the dup should be formalized, maybe not as a keyword but a strong convention supported by the language, maybe phobos. For example, in your code you have already written 2 idup functions. The code below works as well with no need to write those custom functions. Besides, it should be safer (assuming it works ;-) because you can add new fields and have less to update. BTW: if you are still working on this be aware you may eventually have some (unwanted?) data sharing going on since there are no postblits and you have reference types with aliasing. Some descriptions of the code and its intentions are: https://github.com/patefacio/d-help/blob/master/doc/canonical.pdf Thanks Dan -------------------------------------------------------------------- import std.stdio; import std.typecons; import std.conv; import std.exception; import opmix.mix; alias Tuple!(uint, "id") Link; struct Node { uint id; Link[] links; void addLink(uint l) { links ~= Link(l); } } struct Network { Node[uint] nodes; void add(uint i, uint j) { if((i in nodes) is null) nodes[i] = Node(i); if((j in nodes) is null) nodes[j] = Node(j); nodes[i].addLink(j); nodes[j].addLink(i); } void print() { foreach(k; nodes.keys) { write("[", k, "]"); foreach(l; nodes[k].links) write(" ", l.id); writeln(); } writeln(); } } unittest { auto n1 = Node(1); n1.addLink(5); n1.addLink(6); writeln(n1.links); immutable n2 = cast(immutable)n1.gdup; writeln(n2.links); Network net1; net1.add(1,2); immutable Network net2 = cast(immutable)net1.gdup; writeln(net1); writeln(net2); }
Nov 29 2012
prev sibling parent Joseph Rushton Wakeling <joseph.wakeling webdrake.net> writes:
On 11/30/2012 05:45 AM, Ali Çehreli wrote:
 I've forced it pretty hard: :D

      immutable(Network) idup() pure const  property
      {
          Node[uint] nodesCopy;

          foreach (key, node; nodes) {
              immutable(Node) nodeCopy = node.idup;
              nodesCopy[key] = cast(Node)nodeCopy;
          }

          immutable imnodes = assumeUnique(nodesCopy);
          return immutable(Network)(imnodes);
      }

 I hope it is safe. :p

You know, now I'm embarrassed, because I really should have come up with this myself. :-P Actually, I think I did, but I was concerned that the returned result wouldn't actually be identical to the original, inasmuch as e.g. inserting the nodes one by one might cause everything to be in a different order to the original. So I didn't have the confidence to try it out. Of course, I could always test these things ... Thanks very much for the suggestion!
Dec 05 2012