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digitalmars.D.bugs - [Issue 2313] New: Poor array ~= append performance

reply d-bugmail puremagic.com writes:
http://d.puremagic.com/issues/show_bug.cgi?id=2313

           Summary: Poor array ~= append performance
           Product: D
           Version: unspecified
          Platform: PC
               URL: http://www.digitalmars.com/webnews/newsgroups.php?art_gr
                    oup=digitalmars.D&article_id=75410
        OS/Version: Windows
            Status: NEW
          Severity: normal
          Priority: P2
         Component: DMD
        AssignedTo: bugzilla digitalmars.com
        ReportedBy: lio+bugzilla lunesu.com


See original thread.

Appending an element to an array is very slow. There are three reasons:

1) __d_arrayappendcT is used for all types of arrays, resulting in less than
optimal performance when sizeof(item) > 1;

2) std.gc.capacity calls sizeOfNoSync which in turn calls findPool. Complexity
of this call is O(m+n), n = number of pools, m = size of block;

3) sizeOfNoSync records the last result in a (global) cache to improve the
performance of the case "for() ar~=item;" When appending to two arrays, this
cache is useless, resulting in the O(m+n) code path described above.

A possible solution to 1) might be to create custom append routines for each
array type (similar to the custom routines for the array operations,
comparison, hashing, etc.) This way, an array of int[] can simply add an int.
Or, the __d_arrayappendcT code should check the size of the item and invoke
different code (possibly using mmx/sse when applicable.)

2) might be solved by using the fact that pooltable is always sorted; this
would bring the complexity down to O(m + log n). Ideally the size for each
allocation is recorded, either in a separate array (per pool) or right before
the allocation itself. This would result in a complexity of O(log n) resp.
O(1), minimizing the impact of the cache miss as mentioned in 3).


-- 
Aug 25 2008
next sibling parent d-bugmail puremagic.com writes:
http://d.puremagic.com/issues/show_bug.cgi?id=2313





------- Comment #1 from lio+bugzilla lunesu.com  2008-08-26 09:41 -------
Some stats. Using bearophile's test program from the original post in
newsgroup, with n = 100_000_000:

dmd v2.018 -O -inline -release

Default Phobos: 10,72 seconds
Commented gc.d line 915: 4,26 seconds
Replaced line 915 with memcpy: 5,63 seconds

Line 915 is:
#    x.ptr[length * sizeelem .. newsize] = argp[0 .. sizeelem];
where both x and argp are byte[]

Why is byte[] = byte[] slower than memcpy? Perhaps that array assignment should
also be part of the run-time library, perhaps just using memcpy?


-- 
Aug 26 2008
prev sibling next sibling parent d-bugmail puremagic.com writes:
http://d.puremagic.com/issues/show_bug.cgi?id=2313





------- Comment #2 from lio+bugzilla lunesu.com  2008-08-26 10:58 -------
For the record, when changing the loop to..

#int count = 0;
#for(int i; i < n; i++) a[count++] = i;

..it takes 0,43 seconds. (Same flags, n as before.)
Adding std.gc.capacity(a.ptr) to the loop: 2,73 seconds.


-- 
Aug 26 2008
prev sibling next sibling parent d-bugmail puremagic.com writes:
http://d.puremagic.com/issues/show_bug.cgi?id=2313





------- Comment #3 from 2korden gmail.com  2008-08-26 11:08 -------
Original thread is here:
http://www.digitalmars.com/webnews/newsgroups.php?art_group=digitalmars.D&article_id=75410


-- 
Aug 26 2008
prev sibling next sibling parent reply d-bugmail puremagic.com writes:
http://d.puremagic.com/issues/show_bug.cgi?id=2313





------- Comment #4 from bugzilla digitalmars.com  2008-08-27 01:05 -------
Why is byte[] = byte[] slower than memcpy? The answer isn't very simple.
Consider this program:

import std.c.string;

long timer()
{
    asm
    {   naked                   ;
        rdtsc                   ;
        ret                     ;
    }
}

void test1(byte[] a, byte[] b)
{
    a[] = b[];
}

void test2(byte[] a, byte[] b)
{
    memcpy(a.ptr, b.ptr, a.length);
}

void main()
{
    for (int i = 4; i < 100_000_000; i *= 2)
    {
        auto a = new byte[i];
        auto b = new byte[i];

        auto start = timer();
        test1(a, b);
        auto end = timer();
        auto r1 = end - start;

        start = timer();
        test2(a, b);
        end = timer();
        auto r2 = end - start;

        printf("i: %8d,\t[]=[]: %8lld,\tmemcpy: %8lld\n", i, r1, r2);
    }
}

Running this program produces:

i:        4,    []=[]:      144,        memcpy:      568
i:        8,    []=[]:      144,        memcpy:      300
i:       16,    []=[]:      172,        memcpy:      324
i:       32,    []=[]:      204,        memcpy:      344
i:       64,    []=[]:      288,        memcpy:      276
i:      128,    []=[]:      288,        memcpy:      272
i:      256,    []=[]:      352,        memcpy:      364
i:      512,    []=[]:      372,        memcpy:      424
i:     1024,    []=[]:      552,        memcpy:      564
i:     2048,    []=[]:      684,        memcpy:     1384
i:     4096,    []=[]:     1344,        memcpy:     1772
i:     8192,    []=[]:     2900,        memcpy:     3216
i:    16384,    []=[]:     5292,        memcpy:     5472
i:    32768,    []=[]:    11496,        memcpy:    10388
i:    65536,    []=[]:    29484,        memcpy:    27480
i:   131072,    []=[]:   110464,        memcpy:    67784
i:   262144,    []=[]:   655580,        memcpy:   562400
i:   524288,    []=[]:  1204124,        memcpy:  1107256
i:  1048576,    []=[]:  2364588,        memcpy:  2272552
i:  2097152,    []=[]:  4516440,        memcpy:  4417764
i:  4194304,    []=[]:  8996992,        memcpy:  8817176
i:  8388608,    []=[]: 20223908,        memcpy: 17717748
i: 16777216,    []=[]: 35774952,        memcpy: 36094652
i: 33554432,    []=[]: 71008068,        memcpy: 71246896
i: 67108864,    []=[]: 142982284,       memcpy: 145473300

There's not much of a consistent conclusion to be drawn from that.


-- 
Aug 26 2008
parent Don <nospam nospam.com.au> writes:
d-bugmail puremagic.com wrote:
 http://d.puremagic.com/issues/show_bug.cgi?id=2313
 
 
 
 
 
 ------- Comment #4 from bugzilla digitalmars.com  2008-08-27 01:05 -------
 Why is byte[] = byte[] slower than memcpy? The answer isn't very simple.
 Consider this program:
 
 import std.c.string;
 
 long timer()
 {
     asm
     {   naked                   ;
         rdtsc                   ;
         ret                     ;
     }
 }
 
 void test1(byte[] a, byte[] b)
 {
     a[] = b[];
 }
 
 void test2(byte[] a, byte[] b)
 {
     memcpy(a.ptr, b.ptr, a.length);
 }
 
 void main()
 {
     for (int i = 4; i < 100_000_000; i *= 2)
     {
         auto a = new byte[i];
         auto b = new byte[i];
 
         auto start = timer();
         test1(a, b);
         auto end = timer();
         auto r1 = end - start;
 
         start = timer();
         test2(a, b);
         end = timer();
         auto r2 = end - start;
 
         printf("i: %8d,\t[]=[]: %8lld,\tmemcpy: %8lld\n", i, r1, r2);
     }
 }
 
 Running this program produces:
 
 i:        4,    []=[]:      144,        memcpy:      568
 i:        8,    []=[]:      144,        memcpy:      300
 i:       16,    []=[]:      172,        memcpy:      324
 i:       32,    []=[]:      204,        memcpy:      344
 i:       64,    []=[]:      288,        memcpy:      276
 i:      128,    []=[]:      288,        memcpy:      272
 i:      256,    []=[]:      352,        memcpy:      364
 i:      512,    []=[]:      372,        memcpy:      424
 i:     1024,    []=[]:      552,        memcpy:      564
 i:     2048,    []=[]:      684,        memcpy:     1384
 i:     4096,    []=[]:     1344,        memcpy:     1772
 i:     8192,    []=[]:     2900,        memcpy:     3216
 i:    16384,    []=[]:     5292,        memcpy:     5472
 i:    32768,    []=[]:    11496,        memcpy:    10388
 i:    65536,    []=[]:    29484,        memcpy:    27480
 i:   131072,    []=[]:   110464,        memcpy:    67784
 i:   262144,    []=[]:   655580,        memcpy:   562400
 i:   524288,    []=[]:  1204124,        memcpy:  1107256
 i:  1048576,    []=[]:  2364588,        memcpy:  2272552
 i:  2097152,    []=[]:  4516440,        memcpy:  4417764
 i:  4194304,    []=[]:  8996992,        memcpy:  8817176
 i:  8388608,    []=[]: 20223908,        memcpy: 17717748
 i: 16777216,    []=[]: 35774952,        memcpy: 36094652
 i: 33554432,    []=[]: 71008068,        memcpy: 71246896
 i: 67108864,    []=[]: 142982284,       memcpy: 145473300
 
 There's not much of a consistent conclusion to be drawn from that.

(1) Walter's machine has a 64Kb L1 data cache. The penalty for a cache miss is 1.5 clocks. It's probably an AMD CPU. Judging by the timing, it looks like a K8 (Hammer) <g> (2) neither a[] = b[], nor memcpy(), attempt to optimise for cache misses. Both look like rep movsd; to me. BTW, (3) rtdsc doesn't serialise, so the counts for low numbers are pretty much garbage. You need to stick a mov EAX, 0; cpuid; in there. (4) cache effects are giving memcpy a big advantage. If you swap the order of test1 and test2, you'll probably find the order reverses. There's potential to do something about (2). Not easy though.
Aug 27 2008
prev sibling next sibling parent d-bugmail puremagic.com writes:
http://d.puremagic.com/issues/show_bug.cgi?id=2313





------- Comment #5 from lio+bugzilla lunesu.com  2008-08-27 01:15 -------
You're right. I'll double check my own results tonight.


-- 
Aug 26 2008
prev sibling next sibling parent d-bugmail puremagic.com writes:
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------- Comment #6 from lio+bugzilla lunesu.com  2008-08-27 06:37 -------
I've checked my results, and memcpy still beats []=[] by a landslide. Here are
the results:

Gold (using 'prior knowledge'):
#    (cast(int*)x.ptr)[length] = *cast(int*)argp;
4193ms.

Silver:
#    memcpy(x.ptr + length * sizeelem, argp, sizeelem);
5450ms.

DNF:
#    x.ptr[length * sizeelem .. newsize] = argp[0 .. sizeelem];
10270ms.

I'll attach the .asm files.


-- 
Aug 27 2008
prev sibling next sibling parent d-bugmail puremagic.com writes:
http://d.puremagic.com/issues/show_bug.cgi?id=2313





------- Comment #7 from lio+bugzilla lunesu.com  2008-08-27 06:39 -------
Created an attachment (id=272)
 --> (http://d.puremagic.com/issues/attachment.cgi?id=272&action=view)
assembly for _d_arrayappendcT using memcpy


-- 
Aug 27 2008
prev sibling parent reply d-bugmail puremagic.com writes:
http://d.puremagic.com/issues/show_bug.cgi?id=2313





------- Comment #8 from lio+bugzilla lunesu.com  2008-08-27 06:39 -------
Created an attachment (id=273)
 --> (http://d.puremagic.com/issues/attachment.cgi?id=273&action=view)
assembly for _d_arrayappendcT using the original byte[] copy


-- 
Aug 27 2008
parent reply Don <nospam nospam.com.au> writes:
d-bugmail puremagic.com wrote:
 http://d.puremagic.com/issues/show_bug.cgi?id=2313
 
 
 
 
 
 ------- Comment #8 from lio+bugzilla lunesu.com  2008-08-27 06:39 -------
 Created an attachment (id=273)
  --> (http://d.puremagic.com/issues/attachment.cgi?id=273&action=view)
 assembly for _d_arrayappendcT using the original byte[] copy
 
 

than it could be.
Aug 27 2008
parent Lionello Lunesu <lio lunesu.remove.com> writes:
Thing is, the compiler already knows ew're appending to an int[], so it 
shouldn't even be using a generic append routine if you ask me.

L.
Aug 27 2008