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digitalmars.D - Specifying nogc on structs seems to have no effect

reply Craig Black <craigblack1234 gmail.com> writes:
I've recently tried coding in D again after some years.  One of 
my earlier concerns was the ability to code without the GC, which 
seemed difficult to pull off.  To be clear, I want my programs to 
be garbage collected, but I want to use the GC sparingly so that 
the mark and sweep collections will be fast.  So I want 
guarantees that certain sections of code and certain structs will 
not require the GC in any way.

I realize that you can allocate on the non-GC heap using malloc 
and free and emplace, but I find it troubling that you still need 
to tell the GC to scan your allocation. What I would like is, for 
example, to be able to write a  nogc templated struct that 
guarantees that none of its members require GC scanning.  Thus:

 nogc struct Array(T)
{
   ...
}

class GarbageCollectedClass
{
}

void main()
{
   Array!int intArray; // fine


}
Sep 19
next sibling parent reply Craig Black <craigblack1234 gmail.com> writes:
On Tuesday, 19 September 2017 at 13:11:03 UTC, Craig Black wrote:
 I've recently tried coding in D again after some years.  One of 
 my earlier concerns was the ability to code without the GC, 
 which seemed difficult to pull off.  To be clear, I want my 
 programs to be garbage collected, but I want to use the GC 
 sparingly so that the mark and sweep collections will be fast.  
 So I want guarantees that certain sections of code and certain 
 structs will not require the GC in any way.

 I realize that you can allocate on the non-GC heap using malloc 
 and free and emplace, but I find it troubling that you still 
 need to tell the GC to scan your allocation. What I would like 
 is, for example, to be able to write a  nogc templated struct 
 that guarantees that none of its members require GC scanning.  
 Thus:

  nogc struct Array(T)
 {
   ...
 }

 class GarbageCollectedClass
 {
 }

 void main()
 {
   Array!int intArray; // fine


 }
I don't know why send this message out when I was just in the middle of typing it out: But the example should read like this: nogc struct Array(T) { ... } class GarbageCollectedClass { } void main() { Array!int intArray; // fine Array!GarbageCollectedClass classArray; // Error: struct Array is nogc }
Sep 19
parent Andrea Fontana <nospam example.com> writes:
On Tuesday, 19 September 2017 at 13:13:48 UTC, Craig Black wrote:
  nogc struct Array(T)
 {
   ...
 }

 class GarbageCollectedClass
 {
 }

 void main()
 {
   Array!int intArray; // fine
   Array!GarbageCollectedClass classArray; // Error: struct 
 Array is  nogc

 }
If you want to enforce that behaviour I guess you can use reflection to check if T has attribute nogc. Andrea
Sep 19
prev sibling next sibling parent reply Eugene Wissner <belka caraus.de> writes:
On Tuesday, 19 September 2017 at 13:11:03 UTC, Craig Black wrote:
 I've recently tried coding in D again after some years.  One of 
 my earlier concerns was the ability to code without the GC, 
 which seemed difficult to pull off.  To be clear, I want my 
 programs to be garbage collected, but I want to use the GC 
 sparingly so that the mark and sweep collections will be fast.  
 So I want guarantees that certain sections of code and certain 
 structs will not require the GC in any way.

 I realize that you can allocate on the non-GC heap using malloc 
 and free and emplace, but I find it troubling that you still 
 need to tell the GC to scan your allocation. What I would like 
 is, for example, to be able to write a  nogc templated struct 
 that guarantees that none of its members require GC scanning.  
 Thus:

  nogc struct Array(T)
 {
   ...
 }

 class GarbageCollectedClass
 {
 }

 void main()
 {
   Array!int intArray; // fine


 }
struct Array(T) { nogc: ... } ?
Sep 19
parent reply Craig Black <craigblack1234 gmail.com> writes:
On Tuesday, 19 September 2017 at 13:32:59 UTC, Eugene Wissner 
wrote:
 On Tuesday, 19 September 2017 at 13:11:03 UTC, Craig Black 
 wrote:
 I've recently tried coding in D again after some years.  One 
 of my earlier concerns was the ability to code without the GC, 
 which seemed difficult to pull off.  To be clear, I want my 
 programs to be garbage collected, but I want to use the GC 
 sparingly so that the mark and sweep collections will be fast.
  So I want guarantees that certain sections of code and 
 certain structs will not require the GC in any way.

 I realize that you can allocate on the non-GC heap using 
 malloc and free and emplace, but I find it troubling that you 
 still need to tell the GC to scan your allocation. What I 
 would like is, for example, to be able to write a  nogc 
 templated struct that guarantees that none of its members 
 require GC scanning.  Thus:

  nogc struct Array(T)
 {
   ...
 }

 class GarbageCollectedClass
 {
 }

 void main()
 {
   Array!int intArray; // fine


 }
struct Array(T) { nogc: ... } ?
Thanks, I didn't know you could to that but it still doesn't give me the behavior that I want: class Foo { } struct MyStruct { nogc: public: Foo foo; // This does not produce an error, but it still requires a GC scan void Bar() { foo = new Foo; // This produces an error } }
Sep 19
next sibling parent reply drug <drug2004 bk.ru> writes:
19.09.2017 16:46, Craig Black пишет:
 class Foo
 {
 }
 
 struct MyStruct
 {
  nogc:
 public:
    Foo foo; // This does not produce an error, but it still requires a 
 GC scan
    void Bar()
    {
      foo = new Foo; // This produces an error
    }
 }
it produces an error for me https://run.dlang.io/is/PbZE5i
Sep 19
parent reply drug <drug2004 bk.ru> writes:
19.09.2017 16:48, drug пишет:
 19.09.2017 16:46, Craig Black пишет:
 class Foo
 {
 }

 struct MyStruct
 {
  nogc:
 public:
    Foo foo; // This does not produce an error, but it still requires a 
 GC scan
    void Bar()
    {
      foo = new Foo; // This produces an error
    }
 }
it produces an error for me https://run.dlang.io/is/PbZE5i
sorry, wrong link, this one https://run.dlang.io/is/UwTCXu
Sep 19
parent drug <drug2004 bk.ru> writes:
19.09.2017 16:49, drug пишет:
 19.09.2017 16:48, drug пишет:
 19.09.2017 16:46, Craig Black пишет:
 class Foo
 {
 }

 struct MyStruct
 {
  nogc:
 public:
    Foo foo; // This does not produce an error, but it still requires 
 a GC scan
    void Bar()
    {
      foo = new Foo; // This produces an error
    }
 }
it produces an error for me https://run.dlang.io/is/PbZE5i
sorry, wrong link, this one https://run.dlang.io/is/UwTCXu
Oh no, today is not my day, sorry for noise)
Sep 19
prev sibling next sibling parent ag0aep6g <anonymous example.com> writes:
On 09/19/2017 03:46 PM, Craig Black wrote:
 struct MyStruct
 {
  nogc:
 public:
    Foo foo; // This does not produce an error, but it still requires a 
 GC scan
nogc is about GC allocations. `Foo foo;` doesn't cause a GC allocation. nogc doesn't control what memory is scanned by the GC.
Sep 19
prev sibling parent Mike Parker <aldacron gmail.com> writes:
On Tuesday, 19 September 2017 at 13:46:20 UTC, Craig Black wrote:

 Thanks, I didn't know you could to that but it still doesn't 
 give me the behavior that I want:

 class Foo
 {
 }

 struct MyStruct
 {
  nogc:
 public:
   Foo foo; // This does not produce an error, but it still 
 requires a GC scan
   void Bar()
   {
     foo = new Foo; // This produces an error
   }
 }
nogc applies to functions, not to types or variables. It prevents actions that allocate, like calls to new, appending to or concatenating arrays, and so on, inside the annotated function. By extension, no sort of GC scanning or collections will occur in such functions because that sort of thing can only happen during an allocation.
Sep 19
prev sibling next sibling parent reply Jonathan M Davis <newsgroup.d jmdavisprog.com> writes:
On Tuesday, September 19, 2017 13:11:03 Craig Black via Digitalmars-d wrote:
 I've recently tried coding in D again after some years.  One of
 my earlier concerns was the ability to code without the GC, which
 seemed difficult to pull off.  To be clear, I want my programs to
 be garbage collected, but I want to use the GC sparingly so that
 the mark and sweep collections will be fast.  So I want
 guarantees that certain sections of code and certain structs will
 not require the GC in any way.

 I realize that you can allocate on the non-GC heap using malloc
 and free and emplace, but I find it troubling that you still need
 to tell the GC to scan your allocation. What I would like is, for
 example, to be able to write a  nogc templated struct that
 guarantees that none of its members require GC scanning.  Thus:

  nogc struct Array(T)
 {
    ...
 }

 class GarbageCollectedClass
 {
 }

 void main()
 {
    Array!int intArray; // fine


 }
nogc is a function attribute. It has no effect on types except on their member functions. All it does is guarantee that a function marked with nogc cannot call any function which is not nogc and cannot do any operation which is not considered nogc. It's to guarantee that a function does not use the GC and has nothing more to do with types than attributes like safe or nothrow do. - Jonathan M Davis
Sep 19
parent reply Craig Black <craigblack1234 gmail.com> writes:
On Tuesday, 19 September 2017 at 13:59:27 UTC, Jonathan M Davis 
wrote:
 On Tuesday, September 19, 2017 13:11:03 Craig Black via 
 Digitalmars-d wrote:
 I've recently tried coding in D again after some years.  One 
 of my earlier concerns was the ability to code without the GC, 
 which seemed difficult to pull off.  To be clear, I want my 
 programs to be garbage collected, but I want to use the GC 
 sparingly so that the mark and sweep collections will be fast.
  So I want guarantees that certain sections of code and 
 certain structs will not require the GC in any way.

 I realize that you can allocate on the non-GC heap using 
 malloc and free and emplace, but I find it troubling that you 
 still need to tell the GC to scan your allocation. What I 
 would like is, for example, to be able to write a  nogc 
 templated struct that guarantees that none of its members 
 require GC scanning.  Thus:

  nogc struct Array(T)
 {
    ...
 }

 class GarbageCollectedClass
 {
 }

 void main()
 {
    Array!int intArray; // fine


 }
nogc is a function attribute. It has no effect on types except on their member functions. All it does is guarantee that a function marked with nogc cannot call any function which is not nogc and cannot do any operation which is not considered nogc. It's to guarantee that a function does not use the GC and has nothing more to do with types than attributes like safe or nothrow do. - Jonathan M Davis
Thank you for your response. The nogc attribute is good, but in my opinion it is incomplete if all types still require scanning. The purpose of not employing GC in certain sections of code is performance, and we are sacrificing performance with every allocation unit that is needlessly scanned. -Craig
Sep 19
next sibling parent reply Mike Parker <aldacron gmail.com> writes:
On Tuesday, 19 September 2017 at 14:22:21 UTC, Craig Black wrote:

 Thank you for your response.  The  nogc attribute is good, but 
 in my opinion it is incomplete if all types still require 
 scanning.  The purpose of not employing GC in certain sections 
 of code is performance, and we are sacrificing performance with 
 every allocation unit that is needlessly scanned.

 -Craig
As I wrote in my previous post, *no* GC activity will happen inside a nogc function. The only time any scanning or collections can take place is when a allocation is requested. If none are requested, there's no activity. Aside from that, there are other options. If you don't want your Foo member variable to be scanned, then allocate it outside the GC heap (see Mallocator in std.allocator). You can call GC.disable whenever you want (but be wary of the impact performance when you later call GC.collect). You can allocate outside of your hot loops and use stack allocation where possible. I suggest you take a look at the ongoing GC series on the D Blog. The next post (coming later this week) covers heap allocations. https://dlang.org/blog/the-gc-series/
Sep 19
parent reply Craig Black <craigblack1234 gmail.com> writes:
On Tuesday, 19 September 2017 at 14:34:10 UTC, Mike Parker wrote:
 On Tuesday, 19 September 2017 at 14:22:21 UTC, Craig Black 
 wrote:

 Thank you for your response.  The  nogc attribute is good, but 
 in my opinion it is incomplete if all types still require 
 scanning.  The purpose of not employing GC in certain sections 
 of code is performance, and we are sacrificing performance 
 with every allocation unit that is needlessly scanned.

 -Craig
As I wrote in my previous post, *no* GC activity will happen inside a nogc function. The only time any scanning or collections can take place is when a allocation is requested. If none are requested, there's no activity. Aside from that, there are other options. If you don't want your Foo member variable to be scanned, then allocate it outside the GC heap (see Mallocator in std.allocator). You can call GC.disable whenever you want (but be wary of the impact performance when you later call GC.collect). You can allocate outside of your hot loops and use stack allocation where possible. I suggest you take a look at the ongoing GC series on the D Blog. The next post (coming later this week) covers heap allocations. https://dlang.org/blog/the-gc-series/
Thank you for the information. What I would like to do is to create an Array template class that doesn't use GC at all. Unfortunately I don't think this is possible with D in its current state, at least not safely anyway. As it is, I can't prevent someone using my Array template to create an array of objects that reference the GC heap. This means that in order to not break the language and avoid memory leaks, I am forced to tell the GC to scan all of my allocations. There seems to be no way to avoid this unnecessary overhead. I realize that the GC will not collect during a nogc function. This is a good guarantee, but I want to reduce the amount of time it takes to perform a collection, and there doesn't seem to be a good way to do this. -Craig
Sep 19
parent reply Neia Neutuladh <neia ikeran.org> writes:
On Tuesday, 19 September 2017 at 15:11:31 UTC, Craig Black wrote:
 Thank you for the information.  What I would like to do is to 
 create an Array template class that doesn't use GC at all.
You want to ensure that it can never refer to GC memory. The type system does not contain that information. It doesn't say whether an object was allocated on the GC heap, on the stack, using malloc, using a whole page of memory with mmap, using hardware addresses directly on an embedded system with manually planned memory layout, using a well-known address range like VGA, as part of the binary's static data segment... So nogc can't help you. You could, however, replace the GC implementation with one that throws an AssertError whenever the GC runs a collection, allocates memory, etc. Or you could just add nogc to your main function. If you want to forbid all reference types, you could write a `containsReferenceTypes` template, something like: enum containsReferenceTypes(T) = is(T == class) || is(T == interface) || isDynamicArray!T || isDelegate!T || (isStruct!T && hasReferenceField!T); bool hasReferenceField(T)() { static foreach (t; Fields!T) { if (containsReferenceTypes!t) return true; } return false; } struct Array(T) if (!containsReferenceTypes!T) { }
 Unfortunately I don't think this is possible with D in its 
 current state, at least not safely anyway.  As it is, I can't 
 prevent someone using my Array template to create an array of 
 objects that reference the GC heap.  This means that in order 
 to not break the language and avoid memory leaks, I am forced 
 to tell the GC to scan all of my allocations.  There seems to 
 be no way to avoid this unnecessary overhead.
That's use-after-free, not memory leaks. The GC doesn't watch to see when things go out of scope; it periodically scans the world to see what's still in scope.
 I realize that the GC will not collect during a  nogc function.
  This is a good guarantee, but I want to reduce the amount of 
 time it takes to perform a collection, and there doesn't seem 
 to be a good way to do this.
The GC is smart enough to not scan something for pointers if it doesn't contain pointers. So if you have `new Vec4[100]`, for instance, the GC isn't going to waste time scanning the memory it points to. So if you have an Array!int variable in a GC'd object, it's basically a pointer and a length. The GC will note that the block of memory it points to has a reference to it and should not be disposed of. It will at some point consider doing a scan on that block of memory, see that it has no pointers in it, and skip over it.
Sep 19
parent Craig Black <craigblack1234 gmail.com> writes:
On Tuesday, 19 September 2017 at 20:57:17 UTC, Neia Neutuladh 
wrote:
 On Tuesday, 19 September 2017 at 15:11:31 UTC, Craig Black 
 wrote:
 [...]
You want to ensure that it can never refer to GC memory. The type system does not contain that information. It doesn't say whether an object was allocated on the GC heap, on the stack, using malloc, using a whole page of memory with mmap, using hardware addresses directly on an embedded system with manually planned memory layout, using a well-known address range like VGA, as part of the binary's static data segment... [...]
Thank you for the information. I hadn't thought of using templates like that. That might accomplish what I'm trying to do. Much appreciated! -Craig
Sep 19
prev sibling parent reply Steven Schveighoffer <schveiguy yahoo.com> writes:
On 9/19/17 10:22 AM, Craig Black wrote:
 On Tuesday, 19 September 2017 at 13:59:27 UTC, Jonathan M Davis wrote:
 On Tuesday, September 19, 2017 13:11:03 Craig Black via Digitalmars-d 
 wrote:
 I've recently tried coding in D again after some years.  One of my 
 earlier concerns was the ability to code without the GC, which seemed 
 difficult to pull off.  To be clear, I want my programs to be garbage 
 collected, but I want to use the GC sparingly so that the mark and 
 sweep collections will be fast.
  So I want guarantees that certain sections of code and certain 
 structs will not require the GC in any way.

 I realize that you can allocate on the non-GC heap using malloc and 
 free and emplace, but I find it troubling that you still need to tell 
 the GC to scan your allocation. What I would like is, for example, to 
 be able to write a  nogc templated struct that guarantees that none 
 of its members require GC scanning.  Thus:

  nogc struct Array(T)
 {
    ...
 }

 class GarbageCollectedClass
 {
 }

 void main()
 {
    Array!int intArray; // fine


 }
nogc is a function attribute. It has no effect on types except on their member functions. All it does is guarantee that a function marked with nogc cannot call any function which is not nogc and cannot do any operation which is not considered nogc. It's to guarantee that a function does not use the GC and has nothing more to do with types than attributes like safe or nothrow do.
Thank you for your response.  The nogc attribute is good, but in my opinion it is incomplete if all types still require scanning. The purpose of not employing GC in certain sections of code is performance, and we are sacrificing performance with every allocation unit that is needlessly scanned.
From your posts and responses, it looks like you misunderstand still what the nogc attribute does. Note that a type does not bear any relation to whether the memory it lives in is scanned or not -- EXCEPT -- whether the type has indirections (pointers or arrays). A type which contains indirections is scanned, one that does not contain them is not scanned. There is no way to mark a type such that it: 1. Cannot be allocated on the GC* 2. Would not be scanned if it has pointers. You can manually allocate it elsewhere, and you can manually tell the GC not to scan that block, but those are low-level tools that normally aren't used except by experts. The nogc attribute is used to PREVENT any operation that could cause a scan to occur. The idea is to mark areas of your code in such a way that you can predict the execution expense of that code. That is, if you have a tight loop or are in the middle of rendering frames to the screen in a game or something, you want to have the compiler ensure no GC cycles happen. It does not mean "don't ever store this in the GC." -Steve * There is a deprecated feature of D that allows specifying how to allocate classes other than heap allocation, but I wouldn't recommend using it. See: https://dlang.org/spec/class.html#allocators
Sep 19
parent reply Craig Black <craigblack1234 gmail.com> writes:
On Tuesday, 19 September 2017 at 15:15:05 UTC, Steven 
Schveighoffer wrote:
 On 9/19/17 10:22 AM, Craig Black wrote:
 On Tuesday, 19 September 2017 at 13:59:27 UTC, Jonathan M 
 Davis wrote:
 On Tuesday, September 19, 2017 13:11:03 Craig Black via 
 Digitalmars-d wrote:
 I've recently tried coding in D again after some years.  One 
 of my earlier concerns was the ability to code without the 
 GC, which seemed difficult to pull off.  To be clear, I want 
 my programs to be garbage collected, but I want to use the 
 GC sparingly so that the mark and sweep collections will be 
 fast.
  So I want guarantees that certain sections of code and 
 certain structs will not require the GC in any way.

 I realize that you can allocate on the non-GC heap using 
 malloc and free and emplace, but I find it troubling that 
 you still need to tell the GC to scan your allocation. What 
 I would like is, for example, to be able to write a  nogc 
 templated struct that guarantees that none of its members 
 require GC scanning.  Thus:

  nogc struct Array(T)
 {
    ...
 }

 class GarbageCollectedClass
 {
 }

 void main()
 {
    Array!int intArray; // fine


 }
nogc is a function attribute. It has no effect on types except on their member functions. All it does is guarantee that a function marked with nogc cannot call any function which is not nogc and cannot do any operation which is not considered nogc. It's to guarantee that a function does not use the GC and has nothing more to do with types than attributes like safe or nothrow do.
Thank you for your response.  The nogc attribute is good, but in my opinion it is incomplete if all types still require scanning. The purpose of not employing GC in certain sections of code is performance, and we are sacrificing performance with every allocation unit that is needlessly scanned.
From your posts and responses, it looks like you misunderstand still what the nogc attribute does. Note that a type does not bear any relation to whether the memory it lives in is scanned or not -- EXCEPT -- whether the type has indirections (pointers or arrays). A type which contains indirections is scanned, one that does not contain them is not scanned. There is no way to mark a type such that it: 1. Cannot be allocated on the GC* 2. Would not be scanned if it has pointers. You can manually allocate it elsewhere, and you can manually tell the GC not to scan that block, but those are low-level tools that normally aren't used except by experts. The nogc attribute is used to PREVENT any operation that could cause a scan to occur. The idea is to mark areas of your code in such a way that you can predict the execution expense of that code. That is, if you have a tight loop or are in the middle of rendering frames to the screen in a game or something, you want to have the compiler ensure no GC cycles happen. It does not mean "don't ever store this in the GC." -Steve * There is a deprecated feature of D that allows specifying how to allocate classes other than heap allocation, but I wouldn't recommend using it. See: https://dlang.org/spec/class.html#allocators
Thank you for the clarification. I understand mow that nogc is only for functions and not for data types. Thinking out loud, it would seem beneficial if there was a way to mark a pointer or data structure as not pointing to the GC heap. A guarantee to the compiler and run-time to ignore it during GC sweeps. Now I know that pointer arithmetic breaks every kind of guarantee that would have with pointers, but aside from that it would seem to me that the compiler could help to enforce data marked as non-GC to not be assigned GC heap allocations. This wouldn't be allowed for classes or class references, since they are always pointing to GC data, but perhaps for pointers and structs. It seems like it would be a helpful feature, but maybe I'm way off base. -Craig
Sep 19
next sibling parent Steven Schveighoffer <schveiguy yahoo.com> writes:
On 9/19/17 2:06 PM, Craig Black wrote:
 Thank you for the clarification. I understand mow that  nogc is only for 
 functions and not for data types.  Thinking out loud, it would seem 
 beneficial if there was a way to mark a pointer or data structure as not 
 pointing to the GC heap. A guarantee to the compiler and run-time to 
 ignore it during GC sweeps.  Now I know that pointer arithmetic breaks 
 every kind of guarantee that would have with pointers, but aside from 
 that it would seem to me that the compiler could help to enforce data 
 marked as non-GC to not be assigned GC heap allocations.  This wouldn't 
 be allowed for classes or class references, since they are always 
 pointing to GC data, but perhaps for pointers and structs.  It seems 
 like it would be a helpful feature, but maybe I'm way off base.
In order for that to work, we would first need a precise scanner, as the current scanner scans ALL values in a block to see if any point at any heap memory, regardless of whether it is truly a pointer or not. Also, if a pointer points to something outside the heap, there is no scanning of that data, since the GC doesn't know about it. The cost of having a pointer that points to a non-GC memory location is small (not entirely trivial, but it's just a few comparisons). The only true benefit would be to avoid scanning the entire block. This means that along with precise scanning, you couldn't have any GC pointers in the block. As with most things, we need to prove the benefit with profiling before spending any time thinking about how to implement, and certainly before adding any language/library features. -Steve
Sep 19
prev sibling parent ag0aep6g <anonymous example.com> writes:
On 09/19/2017 08:06 PM, Craig Black wrote:
 This wouldn't 
 be allowed for classes or class references, since they are always 
 pointing to GC data
That's not true. You can put class objects into other places than the GC heap.
Sep 19
prev sibling next sibling parent John Colvin <john.loughran.colvin gmail.com> writes:
On Tuesday, 19 September 2017 at 13:11:03 UTC, Craig Black wrote:
 I've recently tried coding in D again after some years.  One of 
 my earlier concerns was the ability to code without the GC, 
 which seemed difficult to pull off.  To be clear, I want my 
 programs to be garbage collected, but I want to use the GC 
 sparingly so that the mark and sweep collections will be fast.  
 So I want guarantees that certain sections of code and certain 
 structs will not require the GC in any way.

 I realize that you can allocate on the non-GC heap using malloc 
 and free and emplace, but I find it troubling that you still 
 need to tell the GC to scan your allocation. What I would like 
 is, for example, to be able to write a  nogc templated struct 
 that guarantees that none of its members require GC scanning.  
 Thus:

  nogc struct Array(T)
 {
   ...
 }

 class GarbageCollectedClass
 {
 }

 void main()
 {
   Array!int intArray; // fine


 }
nogc has nothing to do with whether something needs scanning. It guarantees that code will never allocate with the GC or trigger a GC collection (because the only way to do that is to allocate or to call the functions in core.memory.GC, which are deliberately not marked nogc).
Sep 19
prev sibling parent reply B4s1L3 <B4s1L3 12.hu> writes:
On Tuesday, 19 September 2017 at 13:11:03 UTC, Craig Black wrote:
 I've recently tried coding in D again after some years.  One of 
 my earlier concerns was the ability to code without the GC, 
 which seemed difficult to pull off.  To be clear, I want my 
 programs to be garbage collected, but I want to use the GC 
 sparingly so that the mark and sweep collections will be fast.  
 So I want guarantees that certain sections of code and certain 
 structs will not require the GC in any way.

 I realize that you can allocate on the non-GC heap using malloc 
 and free and emplace, but I find it troubling that you still 
 need to tell the GC to scan your allocation. What I would like 
 is, for example, to be able to write a  nogc templated struct 
 that guarantees that none of its members require GC scanning.  
 Thus:

  nogc struct Array(T)
 {
   ...
 }

 class GarbageCollectedClass
 {
 }

 void main()
 {
   Array!int intArray; // fine


 }
I've implemented data annotation in iz, if you want to take a look. It's quite near from what you descibed in a more recent answer: ---- /+ dub.sdl: name "dub_script" dependency "iz" version="0.6.0" +/ module dub_script; import iz.memory; // defines a class that has a member // which is usually handled by the GC class Foo {void* looks_gc_managed;} // defines a class and marks member as nogc-"trusted" class Bar { NoGc Foo foo;} // defines a class without annotation class Baz {Foo foo;} // verified statically static assert(!MustAddGcRange!Bar); static assert( MustAddGcRange!Baz); void main(string[] args) { Foo foo = construct!Foo; destruct(foo); } ---- It's another way of doing things. It's less strict than checking all the functions. note: the script can be run directly by passing the file to DUB (single file package).
Sep 19
next sibling parent Craig Black <craigblack1234 gmail.com> writes:
On Wednesday, 20 September 2017 at 02:43:44 UTC, B4s1L3 wrote:
 On Tuesday, 19 September 2017 at 13:11:03 UTC, Craig Black 
 wrote:
 I've recently tried coding in D again after some years.  One 
 of my earlier concerns was the ability to code without the GC, 
 which seemed difficult to pull off.  To be clear, I want my 
 programs to be garbage collected, but I want to use the GC 
 sparingly so that the mark and sweep collections will be fast.
  So I want guarantees that certain sections of code and 
 certain structs will not require the GC in any way.

 I realize that you can allocate on the non-GC heap using 
 malloc and free and emplace, but I find it troubling that you 
 still need to tell the GC to scan your allocation. What I 
 would like is, for example, to be able to write a  nogc 
 templated struct that guarantees that none of its members 
 require GC scanning.  Thus:

  nogc struct Array(T)
 {
   ...
 }

 class GarbageCollectedClass
 {
 }

 void main()
 {
   Array!int intArray; // fine


 }
I've implemented data annotation in iz, if you want to take a look. It's quite near from what you descibed in a more recent answer: ---- /+ dub.sdl: name "dub_script" dependency "iz" version="0.6.0" +/ module dub_script; import iz.memory; // defines a class that has a member // which is usually handled by the GC class Foo {void* looks_gc_managed;} // defines a class and marks member as nogc-"trusted" class Bar { NoGc Foo foo;} // defines a class without annotation class Baz {Foo foo;} // verified statically static assert(!MustAddGcRange!Bar); static assert( MustAddGcRange!Baz); void main(string[] args) { Foo foo = construct!Foo; destruct(foo); } ---- It's another way of doing things. It's less strict than checking all the functions. note: the script can be run directly by passing the file to DUB (single file package).
Wow! Yeah that seems like almost exactly what I want. Sorry what is iz? Thank you! -Craig
Sep 20
prev sibling parent reply Craig Black <craigblack1234 gmail.com> writes:
On Wednesday, 20 September 2017 at 02:43:44 UTC, B4s1L3 wrote:
 It's another way of doing things. It's less strict than 
 checking all the functions.

 note: the script can be run directly by passing the file to DUB 
 (single file package).
Wow! Yeah that seems like almost exactly what I want. Sorry what is iz? Thank you! -Craig
Sep 20
parent B4s1L3 <B4s1L3 12.hu> writes:
On Wednesday, 20 September 2017 at 16:13:44 UTC, Craig Black 
wrote:
 On Wednesday, 20 September 2017 at 02:43:44 UTC, B4s1L3 wrote:
 It's another way of doing things. It's less strict than 
 checking all the functions.

 note: the script can be run directly by passing the file to 
 DUB (single file package).
Wow! Yeah that seems like almost exactly what I want. Sorry what is iz? Thank you! -Craig
It's a D user library: https://github.com/BBasile/iz. I forgot to say but the NoGc data annotation relies on construct(). Neither `new` not `std.experimental.allocator.make` are usable, because `AddGcRoot()`, when needed, is called inside `construct` (which is, if you remove the ability to handle the annotation, similar to make).
Sep 20