## D - D complex vs C++ std::complex

- Walter (3/3) Aug 25 2003 I wrote this in response to repeated questions about it.
- Matthew Wilson (10/18) Aug 26 2003 explain, please
- Walter (2/15) Aug 26 2003 If you don't believe me, check out Prof. Kahan's referenced papers!
- Matthew Wilson (5/26) Aug 27 2003 one
- Sean L. Palmer (55/58) Aug 26 2003 Sorry, Walter, had to do it: ;)
- John Reimer (36/58) Aug 27 2003 Earlier, I did argue in favor of distinct imaginary variables, but, in
- Walter (35/90) Aug 27 2003 I think they are poor *standard* types if the first thing the programmer
- John Reimer (5/9) Aug 27 2003 It is an interesting analysis that seems to warrant a real study. I've
- Walter (7/12) Aug 27 2003 his
- John Reimer (3/11) Aug 27 2003 Thanks, I see now that it is one of the references listed in the
- Ben Hinkle (38/75) Aug 27 2003 have
- Walter (14/48) Aug 27 2003 to
- Ben Hinkle (28/78) Aug 29 2003 is
- Walter (7/22) Aug 29 2003 x.

I wrote this in response to repeated questions about it. Comments/criticisms? www.digitalmars.com/d/cppcomplex.html

Aug 25 2003

"Walter" <walter digitalmars.com> wrote in message news:bier5s$etm$1 digitaldaemon.com...I wrote this in response to repeated questions about it. Comments/criticisms? www.digitalmars.com/d/cppcomplex.htmlireal a, b, c; c = a + b; In C++, it is two adds, as the real parts get added too.explain, pleaseMultiply is worse, as 4 multiplies and two adds are done instead of onemultiply. explain, pleaseDivide is the worst - D has one divide, whereas C++ implements complexdivision with typically one comparison, 3 divides, 3 multiplies and 3 additions. explain, please The rest of it seems quite compelling, as long as it's true, for which I have every faith. :)

Aug 26 2003

Ok, check out the new page! www.digitalmars.com/d/cppcomplex.htmlireal a, b, c; c = a + b; In C++, it is two adds, as the real parts get added too.explain, pleaseMultiply is worse, as 4 multiplies and two adds are done instead of onemultiply. explain, pleaseDivide is the worst - D has one divide, whereas C++ implements complexdivision with typically one comparison, 3 divides, 3 multiplies and 3 additions. explain, pleaseThe rest of it seems quite compelling, as long as it's true, for which I have every faith. :)If you don't believe me, check out Prof. Kahan's referenced papers!

Aug 26 2003

"Walter" <walter digitalmars.com> wrote in message news:bihjbf$1kv6$1 digitaldaemon.com...oneireal a, b, c; c = a + b; In C++, it is two adds, as the real parts get added too.explain, pleaseMultiply is worse, as 4 multiplies and two adds are done instead ofGet it posted up on c.l.c.m!multiply. explain, pleaseOk, check out the new page! www.digitalmars.com/d/cppcomplex.htmlDivide is the worst - D has one divide, whereas C++ implements complexdivision with typically one comparison, 3 divides, 3 multiplies and 3 additions. explain, pleaseTwas never in doubt, E.C.W. (esteemed compiler-walter)The rest of it seems quite compelling, as long as it's true, for which I have every faith. :)If you don't believe me, check out Prof. Kahan's referenced papers!

Aug 27 2003

Sorry, Walter, had to do it: ;) Syntactical Aesthetics: Mostly irrelevant. Anyone using this in reality would make a typedef for std::complex<long double> instead of spelling it out constantly. First step in writing portable programs is centralizing declarations. In reality it wouldn't be so bad for the C++ programmer. I know; I've done this sort of thing for years in C++, with templates and without. Certainly looks more like real math written the D way, but that method of defining values is not indefinitely extendable nor user extendable. Besides you don't mention how to construct an imaginary long double literal, or imaginary float literal using a suffix. Does that work? Efficiency: So, you finally see the logic behind my requests for builtin small fixed-size vector and quaternion types. In theory, it should be possible to design a type system whereby you could return a type appropriate to the specific values of the inputs, thus optimizing away unnecessary calculations. This is painstaking and tedious in C++; you have to use overloading *heavily*, and manually specify many many combinations, then face "ambiguous conversion" errors. Perhaps OCaml has a better way to say these sort of things? We currently have to "go to the metal" to get performance out of these sort of values. You know as well as I do that compilers can't optimize flow through assembly very well. It's often a lose-lose situation. Division behavior: be careful here, as optimizing divides can leave theoreticians and serious number crunchers upset about precision loss. Personally I'm all for speed however, and turning divides into multiply by reciprocals is generally good enough for my purposes. Surely you could optimize a simple user-defined struct in this manner? If part of it is always a certain value, and the compiler knows this and can verify it through computational flow, it can disregard results of operations that are never used, and discard operations that are unnecessary. If this is implemented by the optimizer in a general way, all programs may benefit. Giving us a single type that does it just teases us. ;) Semantics: I think this guy is crazy. Bone up on Geometric Algebra; all the functionality is in the operations, not the data storage format. If C++ is broken, fine, fix it. But we all know that 0 + 1i = i and 1 + 0i = 1, so results of operations on the two values (1 + 0i vs. 1) should be indistinguishable. Storage format really doesn't matter; it's all about what happens during the operations and how you define said operations (multiply, log, sqrt) and primitive values (the real numbers). If there are sign issues, it's either a problem in the implementation of the operations, or of the input values, or of the algorithm. I'm not sure what he was trying to do but I'm pretty confident it was either the first or the last of those three. Probably the first. In conclusion, I don't think an "imaginary" type is strictly necessary for correctness, nor do I believe that the implementation should favor two such "axes" and ignore the plethora of other possible axes (you might think of these as "units" or as separate types if you wish). If you build in imaginary, pretty soon people will be asking for (or kludgily building using the available language tools) "x" "y" and "z" axis types, "length" and "time" units, ad infinitum. Sean "Walter" <walter digitalmars.com> wrote in message news:bier5s$etm$1 digitaldaemon.com...I wrote this in response to repeated questions about it. Comments/criticisms? www.digitalmars.com/d/cppcomplex.html

Aug 26 2003

Besides you don't mention how to construct an imaginary long double literal, or imaginary float literal using a suffix. Does that work?Good question.Semantics: I think this guy is crazy. Bone up on Geometric Algebra; all the functionality is in the operations, not the data storage format. If C++ is broken, fine, fix it. But we all know that 0 + 1i = i and 1 + 0i = 1, so results of operations on the two values (1 + 0i vs. 1) should be indistinguishable. Storage format really doesn't matter; it's all about what happens during the operations and how you define said operations (multiply, log, sqrt) and primitive values (the real numbers).Earlier, I did argue in favor of distinct imaginary variables, but, in truth, I can't argue yes or no with my level of knowledge. This I do know: 1) Being able to express imaginary literals is refreshingly easy in D. 2) C++'s method of adding an imaginary to an expression: + complex<long double>(0,7) is painfully laborious. And so it would be for any other mathematical type that might be implemented as a template. I wouldn't like to see this happen in D, not, at least, with complex numbers. 3) D's way of being able to declare a imaginary variable is just kind of neat because even if I can express a complex imaginary as: cdouble = 2i; // can I do this? or idouble = 2i; // the same as above but imaginary only instead of being forced: cdouble = 0 + 2i; it's still "feels good" to separate the two parts (real and imaginary) into variables in some situations. It may also be a readability thing. Since you have two parts of a complex number, it's "kind of nice" to be able to specify that part as a variable. I'm afraid this is the weak extent of my argument.If there are sign issues, it's either a problem in the implementation of the operations, or of the input values, or of the algorithm. I'm not sure what he was trying to do but I'm pretty confident it was either the first or the last of those three. Probably the first.I tried understanding the professor's complaints, but the points escaped me (since I don't think of or deal with complex numbers on that level to realize such problems). Implementation details are far beyond me at this point.In conclusion, I don't think an "imaginary" type is strictly necessary for correctness, nor do I believe that the implementation should favor two such "axes" and ignore the plethora of other possible axes (you might think of these as "units" or as separate types if you wish). If you build in imaginary, pretty soon people will be asking for (or kludgily building using the available language tools) "x" "y" and "z" axis types, "length" and "time" units, ad infinitum.I still don't understand this. Complex numbers are not the same thing as vectors, no matter how similar in some ways. They are a special set of numbers, nonetheless, and common enough that most languages like python, Fortran, and others have them implemented (argumentum ad populorum :P). Vectors don't fit that category. So far as I can see, vectors may as well be implemented as they always have been, which allows maximum flexibility to the programmer. Complex are fairly static in their definition (don't have varying number of dimensions) so it's a safe implementation. But I'm really not one to speak, ha! Oh, by the way, Walter, can we have a set 2D, 3D, and 4D matrix variables too in D, just like the new OpenGl shader langauge? ;-D So fun, so fun! John

Aug 27 2003

"Sean L. Palmer" <palmer.sean verizon.net> wrote in message news:bihj7g$1kri$1 digitaldaemon.com...Sorry, Walter, had to do it: ;) Syntactical Aesthetics: Mostly irrelevant. Anyone using this in reality would make a typedef for std::complex<long double> instead of spelling it out constantly.I think they are poor *standard* types if the first thing the programmer will want to do is typedef them into being something more palatable.First step in writing portable programs is centralizing declarations. In reality it wouldn't be so bad for the C++ programmer. I know; I've done this sortofthing for years in C++, with templates and without.There's no easy way to get around the lack of imaginary literal syntax.Certainly looks more like real math written the D way, but that method of defining values isnotindefinitely extendable nor user extendable.Int's aren't user-extendible, either <g>.Besides you don't mention how to construct an imaginary long doubleliteral,or imaginary float literal using a suffix. Does that work?Yes: ireal x = 5.0 + 14.567LiEfficiency: So, you finally see the logic behind my requests for builtin small fixed-size vector and quaternion types. In theory, it should be possible to design a type system whereby you could return a type appropriate to the specific values of the inputs, thus optimizing away unnecessary calculations. This is painstaking and tedious in C++; you have to use overloading *heavily*, and manually specify many many combinations, then face "ambiguous conversion" errors. Perhaps OCaml has a better way to say these sort of things? We currently have to "go to the metal" to get performance out of thesesortof values. You know as well as I do that compilers can't optimize flow through assembly very well. It's often a lose-lose situation. Division behavior: be careful here, as optimizing divides can leave theoreticians and serious number crunchers upset about precision loss. Personally I'm all for speed however, and turning divides into multiply by reciprocals is generally good enough for my purposes.There are many ways to express complex division, some certainly better than others, but they all involve a lot more than a single divide, which was all I was trying to show.Surely you could optimize a simple user-defined struct in this manner? If part of it is always a certain value, and the compiler knows this and can verify it through computational flow, it can disregard results ofoperationsthat are never used, and discard operations that are unnecessary. If this is implemented by the optimizer in a general way, all programs maybenefit.Giving us a single type that does it just teases us. ;)Yet the compiler does not know this. Consider passing a value to a function. The function cannot know that the real part is always 0.Semantics: I think this guy is crazy. Bone up on Geometric Algebra; all the functionality is in the operations, not the data storage format. If C++isbroken, fine, fix it. But we all know that 0 + 1i = i and 1 + 0i = 1, so results of operations on the two values (1 + 0i vs. 1) should be indistinguishable.They aren't with IEEE arithmetic because of the sign of 0.Storage format really doesn't matter; it's all about what happens during the operations and how you define said operations (multiply, log, sqrt) and primitive values (the real numbers).Prof. Kahan isn't crazy, in fact, he is the prime mover behind IEEE 754 arithmetic. There really isn't anyone who knows floating point better than him. The trouble comes not from the mathematics, but from imperfections in how floating point is implemented. In dealing with complex numbers, you have a thing called "branch cuts" which wind up relying on the sign of 0. Carrying along an extra 0 for the real part winds up getting the signs wrong.If there are sign issues, it's either a problem in the implementation oftheoperations, or of the input values, or of the algorithm. I'm not surewhathe was trying to do but I'm pretty confident it was either the first orthelast of those three. Probably the first. In conclusion, I don't think an "imaginary" type is strictly necessary for correctness, nor do I believe that the implementation should favor twosuch"axes" and ignore the plethora of other possible axes (you might think of these as "units" or as separate types if you wish). If you build in imaginary, pretty soon people will be asking for (or kludgily buildingusingthe available language tools) "x" "y" and "z" axis types, "length" and "time" units, ad infinitum.It's too bad that the analysis of what exactly is going wrong isn't on his web page, but in his book.

Aug 27 2003

It's too bad that the analysis of what exactly is going wrong isn't on his web page, but in his book.It is an interesting analysis that seems to warrant a real study. I've heard you mention the professor before, but never really understood the topics importance. What's the name of the book again? Later, John

Aug 27 2003

"John Reimer" <jjreimer telus.net> wrote in message news:bihsoe$24tq$1 digitaldaemon.com...hisIt's too bad that the analysis of what exactly is going wrong isn't on" Branch Cuts for Complex Elementary Functions, or Much Ado About Nothing's Sign Bit " by W. Kahan, ch. 7 in The State of the Art in Numerical Analysis ( 1987 ) ed. by M. Powell and A. Iserles for Oxford U.P.web page, but in his book.It is an interesting analysis that seems to warrant a real study. I've heard you mention the professor before, but never really understood the topics importance. What's the name of the book again?

Aug 27 2003

" Branch Cuts for Complex Elementary Functions, or Much Ado About Nothing's Sign Bit " by W. Kahan, ch. 7 in The State of the Art in Numerical Analysis ( 1987 ) ed. by M. Powell and A. Iserles for Oxford U.P.Thanks, I see now that it is one of the references listed in the references! Oops! :-P So much for my observation skills...

Aug 27 2003

[...snip...]soSemantics: I think this guy is crazy. Bone up on Geometric Algebra; all the functionality is in the operations, not the data storage format. If C++isbroken, fine, fix it. But we all know that 0 + 1i = i and 1 + 0i = 1,haveresults of operations on the two values (1 + 0i vs. 1) should be indistinguishable.They aren't with IEEE arithmetic because of the sign of 0.Storage format really doesn't matter; it's all about what happens during the operations and how you define said operations (multiply, log, sqrt) and primitive values (the real numbers).Prof. Kahan isn't crazy, in fact, he is the prime mover behind IEEE 754 arithmetic. There really isn't anyone who knows floating point better than him. The trouble comes not from the mathematics, but from imperfections in how floating point is implemented. In dealing with complex numbers, youa thing called "branch cuts" which wind up relying on the sign of 0. Carrying along an extra 0 for the real part winds up getting the signs wrong.I think Kahan's point with the examples he uses (the Curmudgeon paper) is to show that you can't ignore the sign of 0 when dealing with branch cuts. See also, for example, http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~wkahan/MathH90/S26Aug02.pdf. I haven't read C99's Annex G (the part of the C99 spec that deals with the optional support of pure imaginary types) but my impression was that pure imaginary is for efficiency and deals with things like imaginary Infs and NaNs better than general complex Inf and NaN. To quote from http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/754/meeting-minutes/01-07-18.html: Annex G specifies three imaginary types: float, double, and long double imaginary Operands not promoted to a common type domain (real, imaginary, complex) e.g. r(u + vi) = ru + rvi, not (r + 0i)(u + vi) provides natural efficiency and better treatment of special values e.g. i i = , not (1 + 0i)(0 + i)(1 + 0i)(0 + i) = NaN + NaNi Infinity properties for z nonzero and finite inf*z=inf inf*inf=inf inf/z=inf inf/0=inf z/inf=0 0/inf=0 z/0=inf |inf|=inf even for complex and imaginary z, 0s, and infinities a complex value with at least one infinite part is regarded as infinite (even if the other part is NaN) Nothing about branch cuts there, from what I can tell. Oh, and why does it say i*i is NaN+NaNi? that seems wierd. I would think ((+0)+i)*((+0)+i) = ((+0)*(+0) - 1*1) + ((+0)*1 + 1*(+0))i = ((+0)-1) + ((+0) + (+0))i = -1 + (+0)i I'd like D to include a complex math library that respects the sign of 0 in arithmetic and branch cuts but doesn't include pure imaginary in the basic language. This is what C99 does. What, by the way, is the exact arithmetic of pure imaginary type and how does it behave when combined with complex or real numbers? Is the proposal to follow C99 + Annex G?forIf there are sign issues, it's either a problem in the implementation oftheoperations, or of the input values, or of the algorithm. I'm not surewhathe was trying to do but I'm pretty confident it was either the first orthelast of those three. Probably the first. In conclusion, I don't think an "imaginary" type is strictly necessaryofcorrectness, nor do I believe that the implementation should favor twosuch"axes" and ignore the plethora of other possible axes (you might thinkthese as "units" or as separate types if you wish). If you build in imaginary, pretty soon people will be asking for (or kludgily buildingusingthe available language tools) "x" "y" and "z" axis types, "length" and "time" units, ad infinitum.It's too bad that the analysis of what exactly is going wrong isn't on his web page, but in his book.

Aug 27 2003

"Ben Hinkle" <bhinkle4 juno.com> wrote in message news:bija5k$1aja$1 digitaldaemon.com...[...snip...] I think Kahan's point with the examples he uses (the Curmudgeon paper) istoshow that you can't ignore the sign of 0 when dealing with branch cuts.Seealso, for example,http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~wkahan/MathH90/S26Aug02.pdf.I haven't read C99's Annex G (the part of the C99 spec that deals with the optional support of pure imaginary types) but my impression was that pure imaginary is for efficiency and deals with things like imaginary Infs and NaNs better than general complex Inf and NaN. To quote from http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/754/meeting-minutes/01-07-18.html: Annex G specifies three imaginary types: float, double, and long double imaginary Operands not promoted to a common type domain (real, imaginary, complex) e.g. r(u + vi) = ru + rvi, not (r + 0i)(u + vi) provides naturalefficiencyand better treatment of special values e.g. i i = , not (1 + 0i)(0 + i)(1+0i)(0 + i) = NaN + NaNi Infinity properties for z nonzero and finite inf*z=inf inf*inf=inf inf/z=inf inf/0=inf z/inf=0 0/inf=0 z/0=inf |inf|=inf even for complex and imaginary z, 0s, and infinities a complex value withatleast one infinite part is regarded as infinite (even if the other part is NaN) Nothing about branch cuts there, from what I can tell.Right, that's a different issue.Oh, and why does it say i*i is NaN+NaNi? that seems wierd. I would think ((+0)+i)*((+0)+i) = ((+0)*(+0) - 1*1) + ((+0)*1 + 1*(+0))i = ((+0)-1) + ((+0) + (+0))i = -1 + (+0)iSomething is wierd about that example, I think something was dropped from it by some font conversion. ii= ??I'd like D to include a complex math library that respects the sign of 0inarithmetic and branch cuts but doesn't include pure imaginary in the basic language. This is what C99 does.Yes, D follows C99's lead (but C99 does have a pure imaginary).What, by the way, is the exact arithmetic of pure imaginary type and how does it behave when combined with complex or real numbers? Is the proposal to follow C99 + Annex G?Yes. The C99 numerics folks know what they're doing.

Aug 27 2003

"Walter" <walter digitalmars.com> wrote in message news:bijs35$25b0$1 digitaldaemon.com..."Ben Hinkle" <bhinkle4 juno.com> wrote in message news:bija5k$1aja$1 digitaldaemon.com...is[...snip...] I think Kahan's point with the examples he uses (the Curmudgeon paper)totheshow that you can't ignore the sign of 0 when dealing with branch cuts.Seealso, for example,http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~wkahan/MathH90/S26Aug02.pdf.I haven't read C99's Annex G (the part of the C99 spec that deals withpureoptional support of pure imaginary types) but my impression was thatandimaginary is for efficiency and deals with things like imaginary Infsi)(1NaNs better than general complex Inf and NaN. To quote from http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/754/meeting-minutes/01-07-18.html: Annex G specifies three imaginary types: float, double, and long double imaginary Operands not promoted to a common type domain (real, imaginary, complex) e.g. r(u + vi) = ru + rvi, not (r + 0i)(u + vi) provides naturalefficiencyand better treatment of special values e.g. i i = , not (1 + 0i)(0 ++with0i)(0 + i) = NaN + NaNi Infinity properties for z nonzero and finite inf*z=inf inf*inf=inf inf/z=inf inf/0=inf z/inf=0 0/inf=0 z/0=inf |inf|=inf even for complex and imaginary z, 0s, and infinities a complex valueatisleast one infinite part is regarded as infinite (even if the other partitNaN) Nothing about branch cuts there, from what I can tell.Right, that's a different issue.Oh, and why does it say i*i is NaN+NaNi? that seems wierd. I would think ((+0)+i)*((+0)+i) = ((+0)*(+0) - 1*1) + ((+0)*1 + 1*(+0))i = ((+0)-1) + ((+0) + (+0))i = -1 + (+0)iSomething is wierd about that example, I think something was dropped fromby some font conversion. ii= ??basicI'd like D to include a complex math library that respects the sign of 0inarithmetic and branch cuts but doesn't include pure imaginary in theFrom what I can tell C99 doesn't require the implementation have a pure imaginary type. Annex G is informative.language. This is what C99 does.Yes, D follows C99's lead (but C99 does have a pure imaginary).proposalWhat, by the way, is the exact arithmetic of pure imaginary type and how does it behave when combined with complex or real numbers? Is theWell, there are some pitfalls with following ieee 754 is you really care about the sign of 0. See for example: http://www.concentric.net/~Ttwang/tech/javafloat.htm the section Wrong Way to Implement abs(). Also notice that since (-0) + (+0) = +0 then +0 can't be used as an "additive unit", meaning x + (+0) = x for all x. So suddenly, if you care about -0, you have to figure out all the places you might be adding 0 to expressions and make sure they are avoided (or look at them carefully). What a pain. Here's a guy who has an anti-754 rant with a few interesting points: http://www.my.netbsd.org/People/Pages/ross-essays.html Ahh, if only ieee754 had a true zero the only argument for pure imaginary would be efficiency. oh well. -Bento follow C99 + Annex G?Yes. The C99 numerics folks know what they're doing.

Aug 29 2003

"Ben Hinkle" <bhinkle4 juno.com> wrote in message news:binhp0$1pe5$1 digitaldaemon.com...x.Yes. The C99 numerics folks know what they're doing.Well, there are some pitfalls with following ieee 754 is you really care about the sign of 0. See for example: http://www.concentric.net/~Ttwang/tech/javafloat.htm the section Wrong Way to Implement abs(). Also notice that since (-0) + (+0) = +0 then +0 can't be used as an "additive unit", meaning x + (+0) = x for allSo suddenly, if you care about -0, you have to figure out all the placesyoumight be adding 0 to expressions and make sure they are avoided (or lookatthem carefully). What a pain. Here's a guy who has an anti-754 rant with a few interesting points: http://www.my.netbsd.org/People/Pages/ross-essays.html Ahh, if only ieee754 had a true zero the only argument for pure imaginary would be efficiency. oh well. -BenThose are some very interesting articles. On the other hand, the FPU hardware we're dealing with is IEEE 754, so might as well embrace it <g>.

Aug 29 2003