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D - GC and arrays (D and OS allocated)

reply "Mike Wynn" <mike.wynn l8night.co.uk> writes:
Walter,

if I have the following code ...

 void * ptr;
  ptr = MapViewOfFile( mh, FILE_MAP_READ, 0, 0, 0 );
  return (cast(byte*)ptr)[0..length];  // length is the whole file length

do I need to inform the GC about the memory region I've mapped into my
memory space ?
my consern is that the gc will try to delete the array that the returned
slice points to.

I'm a little unsure how the GC and D interact with respect to arrays

T[] foo = new T[N];

I assume this is;
struct _array : _gc_obj { int size; T first }
struct _slice { int length; T * head; }
allocate some space (at least T.sizeof * N bytes) and tell the GC its an
array, either of values or of objects.
_array _ar = (_array)malloc( enough_data );
_ar.size = enough_data;
tell the gc _ar is an array of type T
_slice foo = { length: N, head : &(_ar.first) }

and foo ~= item;
is

// again using _slice to be the interal reprosentation of foo
if  _slice.head is null { allocate as before; _slice.head[0] = item;
_slice.length = 1; }
else {
    if _slice.head is not the first item in a gc aware array { shallow copy
(into bigger array) and append item }
    else {
        _array _ar;
        get _ar that is the base array of _slice;
        if _ar.size < _slice.length + 1 { shallow copy etc as before }
        else {
            _slice.head[_slice.length] = item;
            _slice.length++;
        }
    }
}

this is based on my observations of the postfixed code.
I believe that the structs should be
struct _array : _gc_obj { int size; _slice * owner; T first }
struct _slice { int length; T * head; }

// again using _slice to be the interal reprosentation of foo
if  _slice.head is null { allocate as before; _slice.head[0] = item;
_slice.length = 1; }
else {
    if _slice.head is not the first item in a gc aware array { shallow copy
(into bigger array) and append item }
    else {
        _array _ar;
        get _ar that is the base array of _slice;
        if _ar.size < _slice.length + 1 { shallow copy etc as before }
        else {
            if _ar.owner != _slice { shallow copy }
            else {
            _slice.head[_slice.length] = item;
            _slice.length++;
            }
        }
    }
}

import c.stdio;

int[] nums = [1,2,3,4];

void print_ar( char[] str, int[] ar ){
 printf("%.*s [", str );
 for( int i = 0; i < ar.length; i++ ){
  if ( i!=0 ) printf( ", " );
  printf( "%i", ar[i] );
 }
 printf( "]\n" );
}

int main( char[][] argv ){
 int[] foo = new int[4];
 int[] tmp;
 foo[0..4] = nums[0..4];
 print_ar( "original foo", foo );
 tmp = foo[1..2];
 print_ar( "foo[1..2] slice tmp", tmp );
 print_ar( "from foo", foo );
 printf( "-appending to tmp" );
 tmp ~= 9;
 print_ar( "foo slice tmp", tmp );
 print_ar( "from foo", foo );
 printf( " trying from start" );
 tmp = foo[0..2];
 print_ar( "foo[0..2] slice tmp", tmp );
 print_ar( "from foo", foo );
 printf( "-appending to tmp" );
 tmp ~= 9;
 print_ar( "foo slice tmp", tmp );
 print_ar( "from foo", foo );
 printf( " trying from start" );
 return 0;
}

outputs

original foo [1, 2, 3, 4]
foo[1..2] slice tmp [2]
from foo [1, 2, 3, 4]
-appending to tmpfoo slice tmp [2, 9]
from foo [1, 2, 3, 4]
 trying from startfoo[0..2] slice tmp [1, 2]
from foo [1, 2, 3, 4]
-appending to tmpfoo slice tmp [1, 2, 9]
from foo [1, 2, 9, 4]
 trying from start

Digital Mars D Compiler Beta v0.59
Mar 08 2003
parent reply "Walter" <walter digitalmars.com> writes:
"Mike Wynn" <mike.wynn l8night.co.uk> wrote in message
news:b4e2eq$ttj$1 digitaldaemon.com...
 if I have the following code ...

  void * ptr;
   ptr = MapViewOfFile( mh, FILE_MAP_READ, 0, 0, 0 );
   return (cast(byte*)ptr)[0..length];  // length is the whole file length

 do I need to inform the GC about the memory region I've mapped into my
 memory space ?

Yes, *if* you are going to store into it any references to any GC'd objects.
 my consern is that the gc will try to delete the array that the returned
 slice points to.

No, it won't, as it wasn't allocated by the GC.
 I'm a little unsure how the GC and D interact with respect to arrays

 T[] foo = new T[N];

 I assume this is;
 struct _array : _gc_obj { int size; T first }
 struct _slice { int length; T * head; }
 allocate some space (at least T.sizeof * N bytes) and tell the GC its an
 array, either of values or of objects.
 _array _ar = (_array)malloc( enough_data );
 _ar.size = enough_data;
 tell the gc _ar is an array of type T
 _slice foo = { length: N, head : &(_ar.first) }

 and foo ~= item;
 is

 // again using _slice to be the interal reprosentation of foo
 if  _slice.head is null { allocate as before; _slice.head[0] = item;
 _slice.length = 1; }
 else {
     if _slice.head is not the first item in a gc aware array { shallow

 (into bigger array) and append item }
     else {
         _array _ar;
         get _ar that is the base array of _slice;
         if _ar.size < _slice.length + 1 { shallow copy etc as before }
         else {
             _slice.head[_slice.length] = item;
             _slice.length++;
         }
     }
 }

 this is based on my observations of the postfixed code.
 I believe that the structs should be
 struct _array : _gc_obj { int size; _slice * owner; T first }
 struct _slice { int length; T * head; }

 // again using _slice to be the interal reprosentation of foo
 if  _slice.head is null { allocate as before; _slice.head[0] = item;
 _slice.length = 1; }
 else {
     if _slice.head is not the first item in a gc aware array { shallow

 (into bigger array) and append item }
     else {
         _array _ar;
         get _ar that is the base array of _slice;
         if _ar.size < _slice.length + 1 { shallow copy etc as before }
         else {
             if _ar.owner != _slice { shallow copy }
             else {
             _slice.head[_slice.length] = item;
             _slice.length++;
             }
         }
     }
 }

 import c.stdio;

 int[] nums = [1,2,3,4];

 void print_ar( char[] str, int[] ar ){
  printf("%.*s [", str );
  for( int i = 0; i < ar.length; i++ ){
   if ( i!=0 ) printf( ", " );
   printf( "%i", ar[i] );
  }
  printf( "]\n" );
 }

 int main( char[][] argv ){
  int[] foo = new int[4];
  int[] tmp;
  foo[0..4] = nums[0..4];
  print_ar( "original foo", foo );
  tmp = foo[1..2];
  print_ar( "foo[1..2] slice tmp", tmp );
  print_ar( "from foo", foo );
  printf( "-appending to tmp" );
  tmp ~= 9;
  print_ar( "foo slice tmp", tmp );
  print_ar( "from foo", foo );
  printf( " trying from start" );
  tmp = foo[0..2];
  print_ar( "foo[0..2] slice tmp", tmp );
  print_ar( "from foo", foo );
  printf( "-appending to tmp" );
  tmp ~= 9;
  print_ar( "foo slice tmp", tmp );
  print_ar( "from foo", foo );
  printf( " trying from start" );
  return 0;
 }

 outputs

 original foo [1, 2, 3, 4]
 foo[1..2] slice tmp [2]
 from foo [1, 2, 3, 4]
 -appending to tmpfoo slice tmp [2, 9]
 from foo [1, 2, 3, 4]
  trying from startfoo[0..2] slice tmp [1, 2]
 from foo [1, 2, 3, 4]
 -appending to tmpfoo slice tmp [1, 2, 9]
 from foo [1, 2, 9, 4]
  trying from start

 Digital Mars D Compiler Beta v0.59

Slicing does NOT allocate new data, it just is a reference to existing data. Resizing an array (appending to it counts as resizing) may or may not result in a copy being made, depending on if the gc determines if there is enough room in the chunk the array is allocated in.
Mar 24 2003
parent "Mike Wynn" <mike.wynn l8night.co.uk> writes:
 import c.stdio;

 int[] nums = [1,2,3,4];

 void print_ar( char[] str, int[] ar ){
  printf("%.*s [", str );
  for( int i = 0; i < ar.length; i++ ){
   if ( i!=0 ) printf( ", " );
   printf( "%i", ar[i] );
  }
  printf( "]\n" );
 }

 int main( char[][] argv ){
  int[] foo = new int[4];
  int[] tmp;
  foo[0..4] = nums[0..4];
  print_ar( "original foo", foo );
  tmp = foo[1..2];
  print_ar( "foo[1..2] slice tmp", tmp );
  print_ar( "from foo", foo );
  printf( "-appending to tmp" );
  tmp ~= 9;
  print_ar( "foo slice tmp", tmp );
  print_ar( "from foo", foo );
  printf( " trying from start" );
  tmp = foo[0..2];
  print_ar( "foo[0..2] slice tmp", tmp );
  print_ar( "from foo", foo );
  printf( "-appending to tmp" );
  tmp ~= 9;
  print_ar( "foo slice tmp", tmp );
  print_ar( "from foo", foo );
  printf( " trying from start" );
  return 0;
 }

 outputs

 original foo [1, 2, 3, 4]
 foo[1..2] slice tmp [2]
 from foo [1, 2, 3, 4]
 -appending to tmpfoo slice tmp [2, 9]
 from foo [1, 2, 3, 4]
  trying from startfoo[0..2] slice tmp [1, 2]
 from foo [1, 2, 3, 4]
 -appending to tmpfoo slice tmp [1, 2, 9]
 from foo [1, 2, 9, 4]
  trying from start

 Digital Mars D Compiler Beta v0.59

Slicing does NOT allocate new data, it just is a reference to existing

 Resizing an array (appending to it counts as resizing) may or may not

 in a copy being made, depending on if the gc determines if there is enough
 room in the chunk the array is allocated in.

be expanded in situ if not i.e. ar[1..3]; then ~= creates a copy. meaning to return an append safe array slice you have to dup if the array slice is [0..n] but not if [n..m] where (n!=0) this causes problems trying to do efficient lazy copy on append. you either have to dup b4 if sliced [0..n], or always dup b4 append incase you are passed 0..n slice to me this is another case of implementation v semantics; to me `b = a[5..7]` is a slice of the array and changing b[0] would change a[5]' but b ~= foo; I would not expect to change a[7] ever; I thing dynamic arrays should be a separate class, a[5..7] is a slice I don't think you should be able to append to a slice.
Mar 24 2003